Anonymous: 18th century


  • Trophies (17th or 18th century), plaster reliefs, Austrian. Amerbach (Bavaria): Schloss. Ref. Walter Bergmann, Slide Collection WB 65 (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers.comm. 2005, col.) On the front of a balcony are three trophies, each in its own panel. The two outer ones are identical; each depicts a baroque recorder crossed with an oboe, some sheet music, a tassel and some foliage. The inner panel depicts a wreath.
  • Flute-playing Boy (ca 1765–1774), porcelain figurine, 14 cm high, Austrian. Lund: Kulturen (Kulturhisoriska museet), KM 60.42. Ref. RIdIM, Stockholm (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (2000). A boy sits on a tree stump holding a pipe one-handed. The lower half is broken off; three holes are visible above the hand that grips the instrument; there is no window/labium; the mouthpiece shape is indefinite. This is too uncertain to identify, other than by the title. Notes by Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Man with a Flute (ca 1770), porcelain figurine, 14 cm high, Austrian Graz: Landesmuseum Joanneum, Inv. 2062. Ref. RIdIM Innsbruck 546 (2001); Prof. Tilman Seebass (pers. comm., 2001). A man plays a recorder.
  • Untitled (ca 1790), carving  4.8 × 11.0 cm, Austrian. Graz: Landesmuseum Joanneum, Inv. 20610. Ref. RIdIM Innsbruck 164 (2001); Prof. Tilman Seebass (pers. comm., 2001). A hare with a recorder and a hare with a plate.
  • Court Musicians (ca 1790), Austrian. Ref. Schmidt (1974); Musica calendar (1979: November, col.); Rasmussen (Horn, 2003). “They play double bass, recorder pausing and grimacing, while the enraged conductor pulls his hair), oboe, trumpet and two coiled horns (hands in bells?)” (Rasmussen, loc.cit.) A caricature – not seen.
  • Pastoral Scene (late 18th century), oil on canvas, Austrian. Graz: Landesmuseum Joaanneum, Schloß Eggenberg. Ref. RIdIM Innsbruck 596 (2001); Prof. Tilman Seebass (pers. comm., 2001). A shepherd dances to music played on hammered dulcimer by a woman and recorder played by a man.


  • The Palace Band, engraved glass (ca 1730), Czech. Prague: Umeleckoprumyslové museum. Ref. Volek  & Jareš (1977: 181); Archiv Moeck; Research Centre for Musical Iconography (1978: 6, item 35). Musicians play violin, cello, a plucked stringed instrument, waldhorns, harpsichord and a turned three-piece baroque alto recorder.


  • Comedia dell’Arte: Two Harlequins (ca 1720), engraving, Dutch. Detail: Bass Recorder Player. Den Haag: Gemeentemuseum, Music Department. Ref. Heinz Amman, Blockflötenbauer, Catalogue (1998, col.); Archiv Moeck; Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000 & 2001). One of a set of three engravings. A harlequin plays a baroque bass recorder with a bocal; opposite him, another harlequin plays a baroque tenor recorder. A note on a copy of this plate in Archiv Moeck (Celle) lists another from the same source featuring an alphorn and a recorder.
  • Musical instruments with Flowers and a Recorder (1750-2002), wallpaper painting, 175 × 76 cm, Dutch. Netherlands: Private Collection. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie 102338 (2010, col.) In the centre a baroque recorder hangs from a string. The margins of the panel are decorated with vegetation. One of a set of three decorative panels which were heavily restored in 2002.
  • Brown Delft tile, (ca 1757), ceramic, Dutch. Munich: Nymphenburg Palace, Amalienburg, kitchen (N and W walls). Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999). Winged putti sing and play cello, lute, violin, small kettle drums, and a pipe (possibly a recorder).
  • Kam Organ (1762): case, painted woodcarving, Dutch. Dordrecht: Grote Kerk. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001); Website: National Geographic, Nederland-België (2013, col.) The original organ was made in 1671 but the casing was renewed in 1762. The designer and woodcarver are not known. The organ mechanism was totally renewed in 1859 by Kam & Van der Meulen of Rotterdam at which time the casing was probably renovated but not changed. Beneath the positive organ is a carved facade with garlands of musical instruments including violin, lute, flute, oboe, horn and a perfectly depicted baroque recorder.
  • Flute Player, (18th century), oil on canvas, Dutch. Ref. Website: Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2001, b&w). A young man in a feathered cap holds a cylindrical soprano recorder with a very slightly flared bell. Auctioned 20 January 1993 (Gabrius, loc. cit.)
  • Vanitas, (18th century), oil on canvas, Dutch. Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2001, b&w). On a draped table lie a celestial globe, a skull, books, a candlestick and candle, a violin and a renaissance-style cylindrical recorder only the lower part of which is visible showing seven-finger holes, including that for the little finger of the lowermost hand offset. Behind stands the body of a viol, the neck leaning separately against it. Auctioned 8 October 1993 (Gabrius, loc. cit.)
  • Trophy with Musical Instruments (1780/9), oil on canvas, 31 × 224 cm, Dutch. Netherlands: Private Collection. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistoriche Documentatie 70289 (2010, col.) A very long straight trumpet, a lute, and a well-depicted baroque recorder are crossed with a music-book. A tambourine with jingle rings and pellet bells) hangs below. One of a series of similar trophies.
  • Vanitas Still-life (early 18th century), oil on canvas, oval, 75 × 63 cm, Dutch. Tiel: Flipje & Streekmuseum Inv. 0234-07019. On a small table lie some grapes, an hourglass, a candlestick, a red hunting horn with silver bands, an open book, and a closed book on which the upper part of a skull bites a perfectly depicted hand-fluyt, the beak, window-labium, maker’s mark, finger holes for the lowermost hand (including one offset for the little finger) and flared bell clearly visible. The skull wears a feathered cap. In the background is a globe, and the handle of a sword and a folded cloth can be seen.
  • [Domestic Interior] (18th century), oil on canvas, Dutch. Gera: Auction House Thomas Stetter.  Ref. eBay (Germany), item 371391795122 (22 July 2015, col.) A young boy sits in the corner holding a flagon. In front of a long bench, a man with a pannier on his back leans against his walking stick smokes a pipe. Two women  sit reading their books. On the bench are piled a number of objects including a map, books, embroidery, a fan, a small portrait, an elongate aeolian harp, an open music book and two baroque-style recorders, crossed. On the wall behind hang three paintings, a horn and a very long pole. Beneath the bench are various objects, including a bellows. Although the two recorders are crudely painted their bulbous beaks, flared bells and ornamental turning are unmistakable. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2015) comments that the fact that the two recorders are crossed may be of significance, especially as they are placed in so central a position in the picture. He wonders if they have some symbolic implication.  Elsewhere, crossed recorders represent the cessation of love, perhaps through death, or a spurning by the loved one. The case is more serious if the recorders are shown one with the head uppermost, the other with the head down.   But here both the heads are up so it could point to an estrangement. One could conjecture that the two women are not acknowledging the man because he is in disfavour. The younger of the  two women, possibly the man’s daughter, is extremely intent on her reading and ignores the fact that her ?father has perhaps brought propitiatory gifts in his packages. The older woman looks thoroughly annoyed and her head is turned away from him.
  • A Family Around a Table (1755–1760), oil on canvas, 63 × 73 cm, Dutch. Collection of Dr Bernardo  (27 March 1974); London: Sotheby’s, Auction LN6226, 17 April 1996, Lot 25. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie 10111 (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). A couple and their two sons are gathered around a table. One of the sons stands, holding a portrait of a young boy, presumably no longer with them. The other son sits, writing a document. Their mother, seated at one end of the table, is reading a book. Father, seated at the the other end of the table, proudly holds a tenor recorder, inclined towards his sons. Dominating the foreground, centre, is a high-backed chair on which a cat is sleeping. On the wall behind are portraits of a man and a woman, presumably the grandparents. Formerly attributed to Tibout Regters (1710–1768).
  • Three Putti in a Pastoral Scene,(late 18th century) grisaille, oil on canvas, 95 × 125 cm, Dutch. Formerly attributed to Jacob de Wit (1695-1754). Limburg: Private Collection. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, Image 0000094292 (2016). Three putti entertain their sheep. One plays a recorder with a flared bell; the beak and window/labium are clearly depicted and all fingers are covering their holes correctly for recorder playing. One of his companions hold a crook, the other a hoe. 


  • Recorder Player and Women (late 17th or early 18th century), needlework panel of linen and cotton, plain weave, embroidered with wool yarns in short, long, outline, and satin stitches with French knots; 205.6 × 132 cm, English. Chicago: Art Institute, 1967.666. Ref. Ford (1987: #155). “A man plays a recorder for four women, one of whom plays a tambourine and dances” (Ford, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • Musical Trophy (1701), plaster ceiling centrepiece, English. Great Torrington (Devon): Cawsey House, 28 South Street, dining room. Ref. Landmark Trust, Newsletter (Spring 2007); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2007). The house was built in 1701 by Giles Cawsey, a merchant and Town Clerk and is now a Landmark Trust property. Many musical instruments are arranged in a garland beneath a centrally placed viola and bow. They include violins, viola, lutes, harp, bassoon, trumpet, oboes, Jew’s harp, and as many as seven recorders. Interestingly, there are no transverse flutes – they were not popular in England in 1701.
  • Musical Putti (? 1704–1705), organ case decoration, plaster, English. Aldgate: St Botolph’s Church. Donated by Thomas Whiting in 1676, the organ was built by Renatus Harris between 1702 to 1704. It was enhanced for the new church (the current building) by Harris’ son-in-law, John Byfield the elder, in 1740. The organ was considerably enlarged several times Hill in 1866, Bishop in 1898 and in 1966 by Mander Organs, having survived a World War II bomb which lodged in the roof of the church but failed to explode. The decision to restore the instrument was taken by St Botolph’s in 2002 after which a fundraising campaign was launched. The restoration, carried out under the consultancy of Ian Bell took nine months was undertaken at the workshops of Goetze and Gwynn in Welbeck, Nottinghamshire. It was reinstalled in May 2006. The case, restored to its original condition, is surmounted by two pairs of musical putti: one playing oboe and violin, the other singing and holding a baroque-style recorder.
  • Title Page, John Christopher Pepusch, XXIV Solos for a VIOLIN with a THROUGH BASS for the HARPSICHORD or BASS VIOLIN (1708), engraving, published by John Walsh, London. Ref. Byers (1988 – b&w). Many sets of Pepusch’s solo sonatas for the violin and for the recorder were published by Estienne Roger in Amsterdam between 1707 and 1718. The cartouche of this title page features two putti playing viol and a long slender pipe with a flared bell on either side of a harpsichord. On either side are viols and tympani, an on the left is a harp. Above is a garland of music instruments including lutes, viols, a trumpet, basson (with a crook) and two more crossed pipes. All three pipes appear to be recorders.
  • Title page, George Frideric Handel, Rinaldo (after 1711), published by John Walsh, London. London: British Museum; London: Victoria & Albert Museum. Ref. Fraenkel (1968: pl. 154); Warwick (1968: 81, pl., b&w). A trophy of musical instruments at the top of the page depicts a one-piece baroque recorder with a bulbous head showing six finger holes (the foot is hidden) and a duct flute (flageolet or recorder) side profile. At the bottom another trophy includes a duct flute (flageolet or recorder) in side profile with a bulbous head-joint and foot. Walsh used the same compartment for the title of later Handel operas, for Acis and Galatea, and for publications by J.E. Gaillard (see below). When Rinaldo was produced in London in 1711, Handel was, as the title page says, Kapellmeister (in charge of music, literally – master of the chapel) at the court of the Elector of Hanover in Germany. This was the first Italian opera seria to be performed in England and its success started the fashionable vogue for opera in a foreign language sung by glamorous foreign singers.
  • Title page: Songs in the Opera of Calypso & Telemachus … by J.E. Galliard (1712), engraving, English. Ref. Blume (1949–1963: 4: 1283–1284); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A festoon of instruments at the bottom of the page includes lute, straight trumpets, violin, and a baroque recorder. Identical to Gaillard’s Six English Cantatas after the Italian Manner (see below) and Handel’s Rinaldo and Acis and Galatea (see above).
  • Title page: Six English Cantatas after the Italian Manner by J.E. Gaillard, engraving, English. London: Christies, auctioned 21 November 1983. Ref. Early Music 10 (2): 233 (1982). A festoon of instruments at the bottom of the page includes lute, straight trumpets, violin, and a baroque recorder. Identical to Gaillard’s Songs in the Opera of Calypso & Telemachus … (see above).
  • Title page: A Compleat Method for Attaining to Play a Thorough Bass upon either Organ, Harpsichord, Theorbo (1717), Godfrey Keller (d. 1704), published by Richard Meares, London, engraving, English. London: British Museum. Ref. Blume, (1949–1963, 7: 807–808); Fraenkel (1968: pl. 146); American Recorder 32 (2): 15 (1991); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A panel above the title panel depicts Music playing an organ whilst two angel-putti crown her with a wreath. Decorative festoons of musical instruments include trumpets, viols, violin, timpani, guitar, and a tenor-sized three-piece baroque recorder. A later edition was published in 1707.
  • Title page, G.F. Handel, Tamerlane (ca 1720), engraving, London. Ref. Early Music 10 (2): 231 (1982). An engraving clearly based on Pierre Mignard’s St Cecilia playing the Harp (1691), which includes a baroque recorder with harp, organ, viol, oboe, timbrel, and trumpets. The same engraving was used for the title page of Handel’s Scipio.
  • Musical Trophy (1720s), woodcarving, English. Stockport: Lyme Park, Saloon, west wall. Ref. Sayce & Esterley (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (2004–5: 35–41, fig. 2, b&w); Lasocki (2006). An intricately carved musical trophy with flowers, doves, music books, a medallion, and four baroque-style recorders. None of the recorders is wholly visible. Two show only the foot and body; two show only the head. One of the latter is seen only in the shadows (just above the right hand dove). One of the recorders has an unusually large finger hole 5, a feature it shares with a single 18th-century recorder, namely an alto by J.B. Ghan. Although long family tradition has attributed the carvings at Lyme Hall to Grinling Gibbons (1648–1721), Sayce & Esterley (loc. cit.) suggest that they are the work of a skilled pasticheur, probably working in the 1720s.
  • Musical Trophy (1720s), woodcarving, English. Stockport: Lyme Park, Saloon, west wall, facing the windows. Ref. Sayce & Esterley (2000); Rowland-Jones (2005b: 37–41, figs. 4 & 5, b&w); Lasocki (2006: 14). Includes two equally playable oboes but, tucked underneath them and emerging at a slightly oblique angle from the base of the trophy, is a brilliantly carved soprano recorder – all except the head section, so seven finger holes, all in line, like those on the altos, are just visible. The design of the foot is exactly like those of the recorders in the adjacent trophy in the Saloon. Although long family tradition has attributed the carvings at Lyme Hall to Grinling Gibbons (1648–1721), Sayce & Esterley (loc. cit.) suggest that they are the work of a skilled pasticheur, probably working in the 1720s.
  • Studying Music (1720s–1740s), mezzotint, 14.5 × 11.3 cm, English. London: British Museum, Inv. 2010,7081.2130.  A young woman shown three-quarters length seated to left, with flowers in her hair, holds a music book open on her knee with one hand and gestures with the other, to a boy who stands beside her, playing a baroque recorder, the beak, window/labium and upper body of which are clearly depicted.
  • Recorder Player, from Anonymous The Compleat Tutor for the Flute, London (1750), engraving. Ref. Möhlmeier & Thouvenot (2002, 1). A gentleman in a coat and wig plays a turned three-piece baroque alto recorder on a balcony.
  • Still-life (1750–1799), English. Location unknown. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie 20890 (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). Still-life with a viol, a perfectly depicted baroque recorder, a music book, medals, crockery, and a book on an oriental tablecloth.
  • Shepherd and Shepherdess (ca 1755), Chelsea porcelain figurines, 16.5 cm high, English. New York: Christie’s, European Furniture, Decorative Arts, Ceramics and Silver, 18 December 2001, Lot 476. Ref. Website: Artfacts (2004). Red and brown anchor marks at backs He leaning against a flower-encrusted tree-stump playing the recorder, a hound at his feet; she standing and holding a posy, a lamb at her feet.
  • Flute Player (ca 1756), porcelain group, Chelsea. London: Victoria and Albert Museum. Ref. National Art Collections Report (1974); Warburg Institute. Two Oriental men in floral robes dance. A young woman holds a small duct flute (flageolet or recorder) as if pausing momentarily in her playing.
  • Recorder Player, from Anonymous The Compleat Tutor for the Flute, London (1757-1761), engraving. Ref. Archiv Moeck. A gentleman in coat and cap plays a turned three-piece baroque alto recorder on a balcony.
  • Shepherd and Shepherdess (ca 1763), 2 Chelsea porcelain figurines, 16.5 cm high, English. New York: Christie’s, British Interiors, 24 January 2001, Lot 208. Brown anchor mark to the back of the shepherd, puce mark to the back of the shepherdess. He standing and leaning in contrapposto against a forget-me-not encrusted tree stump playing the recorder his dog at his feet; she standing and holding a poesy in her right hand, her left hand holding up an apron filled with flowers, a lamb at her feet.
  • Shepherd and Shepherdess (ca 1763), two Chelsea porcelain figurines, 16.5 cm high, England. New York: Christies, European Furniture, Works of Art, Ceramics and Carpets, 23 May 2001, Lot 186. Ref. Website: Artfact (2004). Anchor marks at backs He leaning against a forget-me-not encrusted tree-stump playing the recorder, his dog at his feet; she standing and holding a posy, a lamb at her feet.
  • Snuff-box (ca 1770), English (Staffordshire). Ref. Drury (1986: 196, fig.); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). The decoration includes a piping shepherd seated on a rock surrounded by sheep. The instrument is not clear from the small illustration, but it could represent a tenor recorder, with a bell flare, played right-hand lowermost in good recorder-playing position. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Titlepage:The Songs Airs Duetts and Choruses in the Masque of KING ARTHUR as Perform’d at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane Compos’d by PURCEL & DR ARNE (1770), printed by John Johston, England (1770). Offered for sale by Pazzo Books, Boston (s.dat.) Ref. Website: Lute Iconography, Image LI-3668 (2024). Orpheus with his lyre presides over an elaborate border decoration comprising a veritable tangle of musical instruments including drums, folded trumpets, flutes, harp, bassoon, basset recorder (with its distinctive bocal entering at the top of the windcap, and a single key), violin, cittern, , flute, theorbo, oboe, cello, lute, dulcimer. 
  • Frontispiece, Compleat Instructions, for the Common Flute …. , (c. 1780), engraving, English.  Published in London by Longman & Broderip. Sitting at a demi-lune table with cabriole legs, a young man plays a 3-piece baroque recorder whilst his teacher points to some music on a stand
  • A Gallant and Companion by a Fountain (1780), Derby porcelain figurine, 30 cm high, English. London: Christie’s, 8 November 1999, Lot 57. Ref. Website: Artfact (2004). Incised No. 12. He standing playing a recorder, a dog at his feet, she asleep on the ground before him with a sheep at her side, the fountain modelled as dolphin spouting water falling into tiered shell-shaped basins beneath an urn on a plinth, on a rock-work base applied with flowers and foliage, enriched in colours and gilding (she with neck restored, one waterspout to fountain repaired, other chips). See Twitchett (1980: 114, pl. 116) for another example; also Bradshaw (1990: 178, fig. 136).
  • William Cotton, Wind Instrument Maker (1729-40), printed merchant’s card, English. London: British Museum, Heal 88.18.   Ref. Waters (2021 b, b&w); Vichy Enchères (2021, col.) Annotations on the green backing on which this card is mounted give a date of ?1789; the BM now give it the date of 1765, with no explanation; Waters (loc. cit.) reasons that a more likely date is in the period 1729-40; Cotton died in 1775. In an ornate scallop-shell shaped frame in the centre of which are a transverse flute, an oboe and a 3-piece baroque recorder with a widely flared bell.Below, the text reads:

William Cotton,
Wind Instrument Maker,
at the Hautboy & two flutes in Bride
Lane Court near Fleet street,
Makes & sells all sorts of Wind Instruments viz. Bassoons,
Hautboys, German & Common Flutes, in ye neatest manner.
NB, all sorts of Instruments mended.

  • Musician Playing a Recorder and a Tambourine, Derby porcelain figurine, English. New York: Christie’s, European Furniture & Decorative Arts Including Ceramics, 26 January 2000, Lot 101. Ref. Website: Artfact (2004). One of four figurines auctioned in this lot. A musician, playing a recorder and a tambourine.
  • Frontispiece: A Book of New Songs after the Italian Manner … composed by Mr John Reading (18th century), English. Ref. Blume (1949–1963, 11: 75–76); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A decorative border includes two angel-putti blowing trumpets and (at the bottom) a festoon of musical instruments including violins, guitar, three oboes, a lyre and two three-piece, baroque recorders with decorative turnings, one a soprano and the other an alto instrument.
  • Musical Wallpaper Panel (18th century), 190.0 × 144.1 cm, English. Chicago: Art Institute, 1932.1453. Ref. Ford (1987: #152). “Shows harp, flute, folded trumpet, drum, and recorders as well as other wind and string instruments” (Ford, loc. cit.)
  • Organ case: Ornamental Trophy (18th century), woodcarving, Dutch. Oxford: New College Chapel. Ref. Mathew Rowland-Jones ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2005). A large ornamental trophy sitting above the case of a small chamber organ comprising a lyre, trumpet and two horns crossed by a recorder (left) and flute (right) respectively. The recorder is a perfect replica of a three-piece baroque style instrument. The chest beneath the keyboard is faced with three panels depicting three female figures singing and playing lute and flute. This instrument, formerly owned by Thurston Dart, and then by Christopher Hogwood, is now on loan to New College from the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Oxford.
  • Cupid Playing a Flute (18th century), carved boxwood door panel, English. Wimborne Minster (Dorset): Kingston Lacy. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library (2002: Image USB178227, col.) A cherub (winged putto) plays a flared duct flute, probably a recorder. The window/labium is clearly depicted, and the little finger of the players’ lowermost (right) hand appears to be covering its finger hole.
  • The Prodigal Son (18th century), tapestry, ? English. Chatsworth House (Derbyshire): Devonshire Collection. Ref. Michael Fleming ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2006). Amongst the musicians is a young man who looks as though he is playing a recorder rather than an oboe as his lips are relaxed. But little of the instrument is visible.
  • Trophy (18th century), plaster ceiling moulding, English. Enfield (London): Forty Hall, entrance hall. Ref. Recorder Magazine 30 (4): 141 & front cover (2010). One of a number of trophies depicting musical instruments. This one includes a baroque recorder, a lute and an open music book. Other mouldings depict oboe and horn, bagpipes, and flute and violin. Although it has the external appearance of an 18th century house, Forty Hall was built built by former Lord Mayor of London, Sir Nicholas Rainton, between 1629 and 1632. It underwent a makeover in the 18th century and a number of subsequent additions and alterations. Now in a dilapidated state, it is currently closed for major restoration until Spring 2012.


  • Still-life with Fruits, Lobster and Musical Instruments (17–18th century), oil on canvas, 73 × 104 cm, Flemish. Offered for auction by Ketterer-Kunst, Hamburg, ? date, Lot 74. Two bowls of fruit and lobsters stand on a table with some glassware, a violin, some music, and what looks like the foot of a small flared-bell recorder.
  • Harpsichord decoration: outer lid (ca 1730–1750), 225.0 × 81.5 cm, Flemish. Paris: Cité de la Musique, Inv. E.979.2.1; photograph 23610 , col. Ref. Recorder & Music 4 (9): cover (1974). This harpsichord, originally made by Andreas II Ruckers, Anvers (1646), was rebuilt by Pascal-Joseph Taskin, Paris (1780). The inside of the lid was repainted at this time, but the other decorations appear to have been done some 30-50 years earlier. The decoration on the outside of the lid features fruit and flowers on a golden yellow background, including pomegranates. In the central section is an open music book with music, probably French (? 1720–1740), partly obscuring a perfectly depicted baroque alto recorder. Five of the finger holes are visible and the bell end with turnery and bell flare. The bore opening appears to be quite small. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.) Many other musical instruments on depicted on this harpsichord.
  • Wall decoration (ca 1750), carved wooden panel, Flemish. Liège: Palais de Justice, Salle du conseil de l’ordre des avocats, South wall. Ref. Institute Royal du Patrimonie Artistique / Koninklijk Instituut voor hef Kunstpatrimonium (IRPA/KIK), Brussels (2007). A complex swag comprising three trophies surmounted by figures playing triangle and cello. In the first trophy a lyre is crossed with a clearly depicted baroque recorder; in the second, a lute is crossed with a violin; in the third, a violin and bow are crossed with an oboe. Other decorative swags in this room depict transverse flute, trumpet, horn, bagpipe, pipes, bassoon, marine trumpet, frame harp, harp, drum, rebec, oboe, etc., etc.
  • The Pipe Lesson (ca 1770), oil on canvas, 136 × 106.5 cm, Flemish. Liège: Hôtel de Grady, one of two panels above the dining room door. Ref. Institute Royal du Patrimonie Artistique / Koninklijk Instituut voor hef Kunstpatrimonium (IRPA/KIK), Brussels (2007). On the edge of a forest, beside a stream, a young man teaches a young woman to play a duct flute, probably a recorder. In a variation on an old theme, she blows and fingers the top holes; he fingers the lowermost holes. In the foreground are sheep. In the background, partly hidden by some trees, an old woman peers at the young couple.
  • Musical Trophies (≥1782), organ case, Flemish. Middelburg: Oostkerk, organ case. Ref. Jan Bouterse (pers. comm., 2010, col.); Website: Elly Kooiman (2014, col.) This organ was built by the brothers De Rijckere te Kortrijk and delivered in 1782. However, it was rejected and heavily revised by Joachim & Johannes Reichner later that year. Subsequent alteration and restoration were carried out during the 19th and 20th centuries, most recently in 1996. The case work is decorated with a number of trophies comprising dummy musical instruments: three include baroque-style recorders. One includes a lute with a guitar-like peg-box, an oboe, a small horn, and two ? alto recorders, one looking suspiciously like the Küng ‘Meisterstück (from some years ago)! A second trophy is the mirror image of the first, but the lute is replaced with a violin. A third trophy comprises a bassoon, trumpet, cittern, two oboes, coiled horn, flute, and a ? tenor recorder.
  • Mythological Scene (18th century), tapestry, 326 × 243 cm, Flemish. Stuttgart: Landesmuseum Württemberg, Inv. 9383/23 WLM. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2003, Slm – 11). In the left foreground are three female figures (Graces). One stretches out her arms in alarm, while another tries to calm her. In the latter’s lap is a cello the bow of which lies on the ground with a little harp as well as a recorder, some music, and a notebook. In the background is Mt Helicon with Pegasus and the Hippocrene spring from which the three women are departing.
  • Vanitas (18th century), on wood, 65.5 × 5.35 cm, Flemish. Bruges: Sint-Janshospitaal. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). On a table in an alcove a bust of a naked woman (with her hair twined about her head in plaits) watches over a jumble which includes a candle in its holder, a book, an animal and a human skull (with a twist of oaten hay mirroring the hair of the bust), books, a crumpled score, an hourglass, and a recorder only the upper part of which is visible showing three finger holes.
  • Still-life (18th century), Flemish. Bornem: Abdij Sint-Bernardus. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). A jumble of objects on a table, including a book, money, a picture, some music, a distorted (?anamorphic) skull, a violin, a candlestick and the head of a duct flute (probably a recorder) with an unusually long beak.
  • Amours Musiciens (18th century), on the back of a door, Flemish. Heers/Heks: Kasteel Hex, bedroom of the Prince.  Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). Three cherubs on a cloud play timpani, timbrel and an ambiguous pipe which lacks any detail of finger holes, etc. It may be a recorder.
  • Piper (18th century), oil on canvas, 76.5 × 57.5 cm, Flemish (18th century) Awirs: Château d’Aigremont [museum], beside the door to the first floor. Ref. Institute Royal du Patrimonie Artistique / Koninklijk Instituut voor hef Kunstpatrimonium (IRPA/KIK), Brussels (2007). A young lad wearing a laurel crown and a smile holds a small cylindrical recorder. The window/labium is clearly visible and the fingers of the bottom hand all cover their holes.
  • Allegory of Pastoral Poetry (18th century), oil on canvas, 117 × 92 cm, Flemish. Mons: Office des Contributions. Ref. Institute Royal du Patrimonie Artistique / Koninklijk Instituut voor hef Kunstpatrimonium (IRPA/KIK), Brussels (2007). Near a clearing in the forest, a young woman sits beside a stream playing a slender, cylindrical pipe, watched by her sheep.
  • Carved oak doors (18th century), Flemish. Malmédy: Maison, Place du Marché, 21. Ref. Institute Royal du Patrimonie Artistique / Koninklijk Instituut voor hef Kunstpatrimonium (IRPA/KIK), Brussels (2007). One of six carved trophies on these doors comprises two crossed baroque recorders.
  • Musical Trophies (early 18th century), carved wooden trophies, Flemish. Geel: St Amanduskerk, organ case. Ref. Website: Anges Musiciens (2010, col.) The organ in this church is heavily decorated with music-making angels. Statues of winged putti and angels sing and play bassoons, lute, flute, violin and straight trumpets. King David plays the harp, and St Cecilia plays an organetto. Wings on each side of the organ are in the form of elaborate trophies of musical instruments. That on the left includes lute, oboes, flutes, shawms, violin, cornetto, and a baroque style recorder of which only the head is visible. That on the right includes oboes, flutes, lute, violin, cornetto, shawms, folded trumpet, and a perfectly depicted baroque recorder. The church was built from 1489-1547; the organ is early 18th-century.
  • Musical Putti and Trophies (early 18th century), organ case decoration, carved wood, Flemish. Detail 1. Detail. 2. Diest: St Sulpitiuskerk, organ case. St Sulipitiuskerk dates from 1321 and was completed in 1534. The organ case is richly decorated with putti singing and playing musical instruments, including cello, bassoon, tambourine (with jingle rings), harp, straight trumpet, violins and shawms. A trophy on the right of the case includes a violin, 2 oboes, a mute cornet, 2 shawms, a ? bagpipe chanter, and a perfectly depicted 3-piece baroque tenor recorder. A similar trophy on the left includes a lute, 2 oboes, a shawm, and another 3-piece baroque tenor recorder.
  • Musical Trophies (1750), carved wooden panels, Flemish. Detail.  Liège: Église St.-Antoine, decorated organ balcony fence. Ref. Website, flickr: Groenling’s photostream (2011, col.) One of the trophies comprises some sheet music, a baroque recorder seen in side profile and a small guitar, tied and hung with a ribbon. Other trophies include violin and ? shawm; bagpipe and flute; oboe, tambourine and bassoon. The organ is from 1624, the builder unknown; the balcony railing is from 1750, also unknown.


  • Dancing Nymphs (ca 1700), tapestry, French. Ref. Weigert (1956: pl. xlvi); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2007). A rather Poussinesque tapestry depicting nymphs who cavort to the sound of a tenor-sized wind instrument played by a semi-recumbent young man at bottom right. The instrument is cylindrical, with lots of baroque turnery including ivory mountings, and is fingered as for a recorder. Unfortunately, the mouth-piece end is not clear, but the player has relaxed lips and cheeks. This is a likely but not certain recorder.
  • Draped Figure on One Knee and a Seated Musician Playing the Flute (18th century), drawing on paper, French. Paris: Musée du Louvre, Département des Arts Graphiques, RF 51780.BIS, Recto. The flute is direct-blown and almost certainly represents an alto-sized baroque recorder.
  • [Musical Company on a Terrace] (early 18th century), copperplate engraving on paper, 17 × 24 cm, French. Berlin: Kunstbibliothek, Inv. 918a, 1. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Bkb – 434). On a terrace around a table on which are 2 music stands with notes, sit and stand 3 men and a woman. They play music: the woman on a lute, the men on alto recorder, cello and violin. Not seen.
  • Minerva and the Nine Muses, carved wooden relief, 9.7 × 17 cm, French. Brunswick: Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Inv. Elf 284. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, BSm – 121). Beside Minerva are the nine Muses in scanty clothing. Six of them play or hold musical instruments, namely tambourine, lute, shawm (short and wide), duct flute (possibly a recorder), lyre (6 strings, schematic) and a violin bow. Not seen.
  • [Woodwind Instruments] (ca 1705), chalk drawing, French. Collection of Jill Croft-Murray. Ref. Croft-Murray (1980: 130 & pl. 12, b&w); Haynes (1988: 333, fig. 21, b&w). Depicts an alto recorder, flute, oboe, bassoon and basset recorder, all in baroque style. The basset has a crook and a crutch. All the instruments are shown the same size, but measurements are pencilled in for them as follows: recorder, ‘1 p (pied) 7 p (pouces)’; flute ‘2 p. 2 p‘; Oboe ‘2 p‘; bassoon, ‘4 p 3 p‘; bass recorder 3 p ½‘. Thus the smaller of the two recorders is an alto. On the reverse a number of names are inscribed, namely Plaon or Raon, Cazes, Peutier or Pentier, and Dupuis. The last may refer to the Parisian maker of recorders and other woodwind.
  • Recorder Player (1706), Rouen Faïence tile, French. Sèvres: Musée National de Céramiques. Ref. Archiv Moeck; Website: gallica (2012, b&w). Depicts a man playing a turned baroque 3-piece recorder. Around his waist is a barrel-shaped container.
  • Songes du VIIIième (ca 1720), French. Paris: Musée des Arts Decoratifs. Reproduced as the pattern of a porcelain dinner-plate in a Dijon restaurant. Ref. Christina Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2005). From a Singerie. The instruments played by the monkeys include a shawm, a small lute, a ? tambour, and a clearly depicted cylindrical recorder of soprano size played left-hand uppermost with three paws down and four open holes showing below.
  • Trophy, on head of ivory alto recorder (1740), ? French. Paris: Cité de la Musique, E.681. Detail. Ref. Thibault et al (1973: 122 & fig. 74, b&w). A cartouche on the front of the recorder’s head contains a music book, horn, lute, tambourine, triangle, bagpipe, and a 3-piece baroque recorder, like the one it decorates. Purchased in the sale of Rossini’s belongings.
  • Painted fan (1735–1745), 28 cm long, French or English. Munich: Bayerische Nationalmuseum, Inv. 10/272. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2002, Mbnm – 133); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Courting couples sitting on the grass in a garden are entertained by a man playing a slender recorder, identifiable by the offset hole for the lowermost finger to the player’s left.
  • Title Page: Recueil de pieces, petits airs, brunettes, menuets, &c. avec des doubles et variations, accomode pour es flutes traversieres, violons, pardessus de viole, etc., par M. Blavet (1744–ca 1751), decorative cartouche, engraving, published oblong 4to, Paris, Blavet, Bayard and Leclerc, French. New York: Sotheby’s, Fine Music & Continental Manuscripts, 15 May 1997, Lot 173. Ref. Artfact (2004). Michel Blavet (1700–1768) was one of the most important early flute composers. His Recueils contain flute works in many different styles, including works by Corelli, Couperin, Gautier, Geminiani, Handel, Lalande, Rameau and others, some arranged as didactic pieces for two flutes. The three volumes are engraved throughout, their titles within decorative cartouches with flutes and recorders. The title page includes a violin and bow, flute, three oboes and two recorders (the head of one and the foot of another).
  • Fan (1751–1775), paper & ivory, 29.5 × 54.0 cm, French. Stuttgart: Landesmuseum Württenberg, Inv. 1966-322. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2003, Slm – 21). On the left are a pair of lovers (shepherds). To the far right is another pair in an idyllic landscape: he plays on a pipe (possibly a recorder); she sings from a notebook in her hand. Amongst the decorations on the blades is a lute.
  • Painted Folding Fan (1778-1780), guards 27.7 cm long, French. Cambridge: Fitzwilliam Museum, Inv. M.331-1985. Front: In the middle beneath a drape and swags of flowers, a lady sits at an embroidery frame accompanied by a lap dog on a low stool. The dog is looking up at a gentleman who approaches from the left, holding a cane in his right hand. Further to the left there is a chair beside a dressing table with a draped mirror and boxes on it. On the right, a lady plays a harpsichord. The scene is flanked by vases of flowers and there are borders of wavy lines of sequins and depressed beads. Reverse: Border of blue scrolls and red and green floral sprays. Sticks: A man playing a lute, flanked by ladies, a boy playing a recorder and putti, flowers and scrolls. Guards: A torch and a quiver of arrows, a seated girl holding a handkerchief, and a putto holding a torch. Not seen.
  • Figure of a Musician, ceramic figurine, tin-glazed earthenware, 15.87 cm high, French (Strasbourg). Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 51.744. A boy seated on a stump plays a stylised duct flute (possibly a recorder), the window/labium just visible. One of a pair with 51.745, which depicts a girl playing a cittern. Marked H. in blue on base.
  • Le Flûteur Champêtre (ca 1760), mezotint, 42.3 × 30.5 cm, French. London: Grosvenor Prints (2010). Sold at Augsbourg by J.J. Haid et fils. Seated at the foot of a tree against the backdrop of a landscape, a youth holds a clearly depicted baroque alto recorder. A 19th-century painted copy was auctioned in 2023 (see immediately below).
  • Les Jouers de Flûte, painting, 39 × 30 cm, French (19th century). Auctioned 27-28  February 2023. Ref. Website: Mutual Art (2024, col.) Copy of an 18th-century original (see mezotint immediately above). Seated at the foot of a tree against the backdrop of a landscape, a youth holds a clearly depicted baroque alto recorder. Despite its title, there is only one recorder player in this painting!
  • Fan: The Oracle (1765–1775), mother of pearl, 26 × 49 cm, French. Stuttgart: Landesmuseum Württenberg, Inv. G 6, 165. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2003: Slm – 23). Painted in the middle of one side is a galant scene with a man and two women; on the right lies a shepherd playing a pipe (probably a recorder) with one hand. Behind him is a banner which reads: L’ORACLE.
  • Le jouer de flûte (ca 1780), French. Paris: Citée de la Musique. A young boy plays a small duct flute which may represent a flageolet since he plays with four fingers of the top hand and two of the lower covering their holes.
  • Pastoral Scene (ca 1780), tapestry, French. Munich: Bayerisches Nationalmuseum. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Woven in Aubusson or Beauvais and used to cover a settee and two chairs made in Munich for the drawing room at the Residenz for Maximilian Joseph Graf von Montgelas, ca 1805. In the scene, a shepherd boy plays a small pipe (this is to the right-hand side of the back-rest of the settee). all fingers are on except the little finger of the lowermost (right) hand which is raised as if in readiness to cover a hole. There is no sign of the window/labium, however. The ? recorder is slightly outwardly conical with the wood of the bell flare thickened.
  • [Military Musical Instruments] (1783), engraving, French. Ref. Carré (1783: Pl. xiv). The instruments depicted include triangle, side-drum, timpani, cymbals, tambourine, conch, bugles, horns, trumpets, bassoon, oboe, clarinet, flute, and recorder. The latter is in baroque style. There are also flags and pennants.
  • Musical Trophy (1783), carved wooden organ case, French. Souvigny: Prieuré St-Pierre et St Paul, organ case. Behind a putto standing on the central pillar is a trophy of musical instruments which include flute, violin, oboe, tambourine (with jingle rings), trumpet, lute, flute, and a baroque recorder. Only the head of the recorder is visible, but the characteristic beak and window/labium are clearly visible. On the left-hand pillar two putti play a pipe (probably an oboe) and cello. The organ was rebuilt in 1783 by François-Henri Clicquot.
  • Trophy (1790), bas-relief woodcarving, French. Bavinchove (Nord): Église Saint-Omer, organ loft, panel. Ref. Matte & Matte (2005, col.) A trophy with a musette and trumpet surrounded by foliage. Other trophies include stringed instruments, serpent, flute, oboe, lute, guitar violin, syrinx, tambourin and a duct flute.
  • [Garland of Musical Instruments] (? early 18th century), carved wooden panel, French. London: Collection of Guy Oldham. Ref. Jan Bouterse to Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). A garland comprising a syrinx, a transverse flute, an oboe and an alto recorder of baroque design with a turned bead below the window/labium and a sharply flared bell (no other details visible), draped in leafy foliage.
  • Two Musicians in a Garden, French. Museo Lázaro Galdiano. Ref. Pottier (1992: 60, pl. XLVI, detail, b&w); Archiv Moeck. One of the musicians (a woman) plays a narrow baroque alto recorder.
  • Concert (early 18th century), oil on canvas, 90 × 80 cm, French. Chaumont: Museé de l’Art et d’Histoire. Ref. Forneris (1991: 118–119). Possibly a copy of a work by Pierre-Jacques Cazes (Paris, 1676–1754) A consort with five figures, the central women with music on her lap, her gaze directed upwards, seems to be modelled on earlier paintings of St Cecilia. A boy at the left plays a transverse flute, and at the top right a young man plays a recorder. Two girls listen. The recorder is a highly decorated one with ivory beak and mounts with ebony studs, like some surviving instruments by Dupuis.
  • Gilded wooden screen with tapestry inserts (? early 18th century), ? French. Oxford: University of Oxford, Bate Collection of Musical Instruments. Three of the four tapestry inserts depict trophies of musical instruments. That on the left includes a violin, a tambourine, a horn and a duct flute with holes for six fingers, probably meant to represent a recorder since the paired holes for the lowermost finger are clearly depicted. Second from the left includes a small drum, two flute, an ? ocarina, and a small flared-bell recorder viewed (unusually) from behind, the thumb hole and details of the windway opening clearly depicted. Second from the right depicts a lute, a trumpet and what appears to be part of a flute. That on the right includes a guitar, an oboe and the middle section of a wind-instrument showing four finger holes.
  • Carved device (early 18th century), stone, French. Lude: Château du Lude (Loir valley). Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers.comm., 2000). Terminal upright of square-section banisters to stone spiral staircase in remodelling of north side in early 18th century, with some use of Renaissance style to match the older southern part of the castle.  Each upright stone support has a series of small emblems or devices, many repetitive, like a Renaissance border. The bottom terminal upright has some other devices; one consists of a seven-tube panpipe crossed with a shawm or oboe and a beaked pipe. The device is only about 10–15 cm across, and no details are shown (e.g. finger holes) on either of the wind instruments. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Trophy with Musical Instruments (18th century), carved wooden panel, French. ?City: Cathédrale Saint-Anne, choir. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). A panel carved with an elaborate boarder surrounding a trophy which includes trumpet, oboe, violin, flute, and a turned baroque style recorder with a large and elaborate foot.
  • Trophy with Musical Instruments (18th century), carved wooden panel, French. Paris: Musée des Arts Decoratifs. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). A panel carved with an elaborate boarder surrounding a trophy which includes a xylophone, an oboe, the foot of a ? shawm, a lyre, music, and the head of a turned baroque style recorder.
  • Title page: Six Trios pour deux Violons et une Basse, Dédiérs a Madame La Dauphine (18th century), French. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). In an elaborate frame a woman sings from a score pen on her lap accompanied by a man on harpsichord and another leaning across a table playing a slender pipe, probably a duct flute (possibly a recorder). They are conducted by a cellist who stands behind them waving his bow, his rather out-sized instrument leaning against a balcony. The composer of the trios is not indicated.
  • Thalia: Muse of Comedy (18th century), marble sculpture, 48 × 30 cm, French. Troyes: Musée des Beaux-Arts. Ref. Joconde Website (1999). A bust of Thalia (Muse of comedy and pastoral poetry) crowned with a wreath of flowers, with a duct flute (flageolet or recorder). Part of a group of sculptures. Not seen.
  • Chair covers (18th century), petit point tapestry, France. Versailles: Château de Versailles, Room with pictures of generals, six chairs, Cat. V922. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999). The chairs were made in 1835 but are covered with earlier petit point tapestry from the 18th century. They were made for the King’s bedroom at Versailles.Chair Two has a scene on the back (squab) with two ladies in the country arranging their picked flowers in a basket, while to their left a young man sits on the bole of a tree holding a duct flute (possibly a recorder) in front of him, his hands in playing position with the right hand lowermost. The instrument is of alto size, the bell slightly flared and the bore widening. The tapestry on the seat shows a young man in a floppy hat playing a shawm.Chair Five has a scene on the back (squab) which depicts another country scene with a gentleman and a lady walking. To their right, a young man plays a viola with a large out-curved and pointed bow. To their left, sitting against a tree, another young man plays a recorder of alto or tenor size. The latter has a slight bell flare with a strongly marked bore opening. Chair Six has a swing! All are rather Fragonard-ish.
  • Reunion of Artists (18th century), oil on canvas, French. Paris: Musée Carnavalet. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2004). This is actually a concert picture with players of oboe, two violins, a large transverse flute, and a perfectly shaped baroque tenor recorder with an ivory mouthpiece. The recorder player, seated, is not playing his instrument but holds it almost vertically in his left hand, the bell end resting on his right thigh. Above the holding hand the window/labium is just visible, though the instrument is generally in shadow so that the finger holes are not discernible. There is a fairly abrupt flare a the bell end. Notes by Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Trophy (?18th century), French. Versailles: Château de Versailles, Room at end of Gallery of Mirrors, on wall above mirrors. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm. 1999). Includes music, musette, bassoon, two flutes, and two recorders. Only the head of one of the recorders is shown; it has a short, down-curved beak, and ornate turning at the joint with the body. Only the lower part of the second recorder is visible; four holes in line can be seen on the body, that on the foot joint is offset; it has the usual baroque turnery and is flared externally.
  • Trophy (?18th century), French. Versailles: Château de Versailles, Room at end of Gallery of Mirrors, over the door leading to the Queen’s rooms. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm. 1999). Includes harp, violin, oboe and two recorders. Of the latter, only the foot joint of one and the beak and part of the body of the other are visible.
  • The Recorder Players (mid-18th century), tapestry, French (Beauvais). Location unknown: offered for sale at Sotheby’s, London, 1 November 1974. Ref. Warburg Institute, London. A young man fingers a recorder whilst his female companion blows it. They sit on a bank in a garden where other couples disport themselves suggestively. In the background are trees, a stone urn, and a wreathed bust of a bearded man who looks discreetly away. This is very reminiscent of Boucher’s The Agreeable Lesson.
  • Trophy (c.1781), carved, painted and gilt wooden panel, French. San Francisco: Palace of the Legion of Honour, Salon Doré, above a door on the left of the clock on the NE wall. Ref. Website: Legion of Honour, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (2013). Part of the boiserie adorning the walls of a music room created for a château near Rouen which has been reconstructed in its present home. The original would have been painted with gold-leaf highlights. Each of the ornamental panels around the room has a trophy of musical instruments. This one comprises a baroque style recorder (seen in side profile with its characteristic curved beak) crossed with a cornetto (very clear, with an angular bell). The window/labium and finger holes of the recorder are not depicted, but there can be no doubt about its identification. Wind instruments depicted in other trophies include syrinx, clarinet, oboe, shawm, flute, and a flared pipe with far too many finger holes.
  • Musicians Refreshing Themselves (18th century, Louis XVI), marquetry commode, French. London: Sotheby’s, 17 April 1964. Ref. Sale Catalogue, fig. 54; Warburg Institute, London. On the right side, there is a large single illustration of two musicians at table with a carafe of wine, one seated, one (with a hat) standing holding a glass. There is a music desk-stand with two sheets of music on it, as if just played from; a bassoon leans against its side. On a wall at the right, are two identical duct flutes of tenor size hanging side by side. They have a marked bell flare, their window/labium is clear and, although no finger holes are visible there is a fontanelle: they are almost certainly recorders. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • Pensent-t-ils à la Musique, engraving (? late 18th century, Paris). Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale. Ref. RIdIM/RCMI Newsletter 7 (2): backsheet (b&w). A caricature in which a man in a floppy hat holding a violin leans on his music stand, an old man in dark glasses dozes in his chair holding a serpent, a broad-shouldered man with tousled, flowing hair leans over the chair of a young woman harpsichordist who holds his recorder somewhat disdainfully whilst he shows her how to finger it.
  • Times of Day – Scenes from Country Life: Evening (18th century), Toile de Jouie, French. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). Printed cotton fabric with standardised series of designs based on Arcadian country life, in a style derived from Boucher. Times of Day has four scenes, the last showing the harvest being brought in while the farmer’s wife prepares an evening meal, and the farmer (not dressed as his labourers) helps things along with his music played on a wind-instrument with a widely flared-bell. The latter has a beak of sorts and probably represents an early clarinet, but it could just be a recorder.
  • Toile de Jouie design (18th century), possibly after Boucher, French. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). In a woodland, a shepherd fingers a slender conical duct flute whilst his companion blows it. A tiny window/labium is clearly visible and the bell has an ornamental foot.
  • Portrait of a Boy Playing a Flute (18th century), oil on canvas, French. Ref. Website: Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, b&w). A boy wearing a blue coat and cap plays a flared-bell soprano recorder. This appears to be a copy of the anonymous Portrait of a Boy Playing a Flageolet (ca 1650) in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (A113).
  • Young Flautist (18th century), oil on wood, 16.5 × 13.0 cm, French. Location unknown: auctioned Düsseldorf. Ref. Website: Wikimedia Commons (2012, col.). A young boy wearing a hat with a purple flower attached holds a one-piece recorder of transitional design, the beak, window/labium, finger holes and turned foot clearly depicted.
  • Family Concert at Chateau Renescure (18th century), oil on canvas, French. Lille: Palais des Beaux-Arts. Ref. Bridgeman Art Library (2002: Image XIL16728, col.) On a terrace before the classical-style façade of Chateau Renescure a man with a roll of paper in his hand conducts a young girl, a woman and a man singing to the accompaniment of harpsichord, cello and violin. Other members of the family listen. Three dogs gambol in the foreground. The Bridgeman Art Library on-line database mentions a flute and a recorder, but the detail is insufficient for me to observe these. Chateau Renescure is in Canton de Hazebrouk Nord.
  • Title Page, Book of Offices: April, watercolour on paper, 15.9 × 10.2 cm, (18th century), French. Munich: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. gall. 812. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2002, Mbs – H540); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). A trophy comprises two crossed recorders beneath two violins or violas.
  • Moustachioed Man, Wearing a High Wig and Angel’s Wings, Holding a Dwarf, Playing a Flute, with a Man in a Fool’s Costume on the Left (18th century), red chalk offset on pale cream, medium-weight paper, 19.1 × 16.5 cm, French. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, WA1942.51.14. Ref. Whiteley (2000: 890). This appears to represent a scene from a play of some kind. The dwarf, reading from a music stand, plays a small flared pipe, possibly a recorder.
  • A Young Boy Sleeping Holding a Flute (18th century), painting, French Location unknown: auctioned 20 October 2005 (unsold) Ref. Website: Gabrius Data Bank (2007, col.) A toddler lies slumped against a wall leaning on a cushion and holding in his right hand a narrowly conical pipe which could be taken for a recorder, given the connection in art and literature between the recorder and sleep, and especially as the dog is asleep as well! Several finger holes can be seen, including what looks like an offset one near the foot of the instrument. A bulbous thickening at the blowing end might represent the beak and window/labium.
  • Musical Gathering, oil on canvas, 28.5 × 34.5 cm, French. Location unknown: auctioned Nagel. Ref. Wikimedia Commons (2012, col.) Two young men and a woman are seated at a table. One of the men plays a hurdy-gurdy, the woman points to an open score on the table, her arm around the second young man who holds a perfectly depicted baroque soprano recorder.
  • Recorder-Player (late 18th century), wool tapestry armchair, 96.5 × 63.5 × 59.7 cm, French (Aubusson or Beauvais). Cleveland: Museum of Art, 42.29. Ref. Ford (1991: #224). “On the back of the armchair, a standing boy plays a recorder” (Ford, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • Automne (late 18th century), Ghiordes knot, silk and wool tapestry, 297 × 218 cm, French (Savonnerie). Cleveland: Museum of Art, 46.247. Ref. Ford (1991: #230). “At left, suspended from a pillar are two tambourines and [a] triangle with jingles. At right, suspended from a pillar, are cymbals, a drum with sticks, two oboes, and the head portion of a recorder” (Ford, loc. cit.)
  • Untitled (late 18th century), sculptured trophy, French. Esquay-sur-Seulles (Calvados): Château de Bellefontaine. Ref. Website: Iconographie de la cornamuse en France (2009). Includes a bagpipe, a tambourine, a duct flute (possibly a recorder), a cane and leaves.
  • Roy y Bon, print, ? French (? 18th century). Ref. Early Music News 85: cover (1985). A woman sits languidly at a spinet upon which rests a music score headed Roy y Bon. At her feet is a trophy comprising a rolled score, a jingle ring and a beaked flared-bell pipe with an offset hole for the lowermost finger, almost certainly a recorder.
  • Wall decoration, painting, French (? late 18th century). Fontainbleau: Château de Fontainebleau. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2007). A wall painting in a room redecorated by Napoleon I / Empress Josephine by some rather humdrum artists includes a trophy with a lyre, harp, kettle drum, shawm, and a baroque recorder. Only the head of the latter is visible which has an ivory beak and ornamental rings; the body and foot are obscured behind the lyre.
  • Trophy, bas-relief wood carving, French (18th century). Ravel (Puy de Dôme): Château, Salon de musique. Ref. Website: Iconographie de la cornamuse (2009). One of a series of 6 trophies all different but in the same style. This one includes a musette, a large duct flute (probably a recorder), trumpet, etc.
  • Bachantes (18th century), grissaille, oil on canvas, 32 × 103 cm, French. Thann: La Colliégiale St-Thiebaut, Presbytery, above the door. Ref. Website: Présentation des bases Architecture et Patrimoine (2010, b&w). A procession of five putti: one, in the lead, plays a flared-bell pipe (possibly a recorder); behind him, a putto wearing a wreath and drinking from a goblet, rides a goat; following on a draped putto wearing a mask; at the rear, two putti converse, one pointing to his companions ahead. The first record of the building itself dates from 1728.
  • Still-life with Musical Instruments (18th century), painting, ? French. Detail. Location unknown. Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). On a draped table are a roll of paper, two open music books (one at a page headed 1716), a descant viol and bow, a walking-stick flute and two baroque tenor recorders one with ivory beak, mounts and foot; the other with ivory beak and mounts, the foot hidden from view. Leaning against the table are a bass viol and a bassoon. On the wall behind hang two pictures of buildings.


  • Title Page (18th century), pen & ink on paper, French. Munich: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Inv. od.gall. 812 -7, Fol. 3 r. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Mbs – H 540). Vignettes above and below the title. Above are two crossed recorders over open scores. Below is a violin or viola with a bow. Not seen.
  • Young Man with a Flute (late 18th century), oil on canvas, oval, 42 × 31 cm, Anonymous. Anholt: Museum Wasserburg, Private Appartments, Inv. 663. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2002, ANHs-8); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Half-figure of a young man who holds a soprano/alto sized recorder in his right hand, beating time with his left.
  • A Musical Joke (ca 1710), engraving, German. Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Print Collection, Inv. HB 23 790/63. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999: Ngm 958). A man, probably a jester, plays a recorder, with a variety of other instruments around him. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • [Heavenly Musicians], painted inside lid of a harpsichord (1716) by Carl Conrad Fleischer (1680–c.1738), Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte, Hamburg. Ref: Website: Stiftung Historische Museen Hamburg (2020, col.) This instrument was purchased at a New York auction in 1978. It was restored in 2019 by Ulrich Weymar. The case and soundboard are heavily decorated with ornamental painting which has undergone extensive changes over the course of the centuries. The painting on the inside of the lid depicts a heavenly scene with angels singing and playing various musical instruments which include harpsichord, cello, violins, cornetto, trumpet, kettle drums, lute, organetto and recorder. The beak and window-labium and other features of the later are more or less clearly depicted. Two male figures are said to represent composers Dieterich Buxtehude and Johann Adam Reincken. This instrument can be seen and heard on YouTube. 

  • Nativity (ca 1720), stone carving, South German. Trier: Dom. St Peter, Marienkapelle. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002); Recorder Magazine 23 (4): front cover, detail, col.) “There are two altars side by side abutting the South wall of the Lady Chapel. On this wall (i.e. along left side of the Lady Chapel), are three lightly-painted stone bas-reliefs of the life of the Virgin (Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity) in rococo style, well-composed with expressive figure-carvings. In the Nativity scene (nearest the altar), is an adoration of the shepherds. One shepherd (only) is shown, with a woman (presumably his wife) and three boys. The shepherd’s wife brings a basket, with a hen, and the shepherd has placed a lamb by the Christ-Child. The nearest shepherd-boy, with his staff, holds a soprano-size baroque recorder in his left hand, in offering. It is conspicuously coloured dark brown, with very clear beak and window/labium, and a turned ring at the head-joint. Two finger holes above the boy’s hand and three below are visible. There is a slight contraction before the wide expansion to the bell end. The bottom end of the recorder is slightly damaged showing bare stone, and indicating that the instrument has not be affected by any restoration which may have been carried out on these bas-reliefs” (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.)
  • Decorated title page (? ca 1720–1730), engraving, ? German. The Hague: Gemeentemuseum. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). The Gemeentemuseum have no documentation whatsoever for this remarkable engraving, presumably intended as a title-page. In a spacious concert hall or church an orchestra is playing. At the back is a pipe organ (the shutters of which are painted with the usual Annunciation scene) flanked by two sets of tympani (on the right) and a harpsichord (on the left). At the front right are four trombonists and six trumpeters. In the middle are a children’s choir, a group of vocal soloists (amongst whom stands the conductor), and a band of violinists. At the front left are two double-bassists, four flautists, and four recorder players with baroque alto instruments. It is doubtful if such forces could be raised anywhere other than Dresden or possibly Leipzig, but it is probably wishful thinking. Notes (in part) by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • [Musicians on a Terrace] (ca 1730), German. Ref. Blume (1949–1963, 1: 1289–1290); Aulich (1981: tafel II); Archiv Moeck; Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A man stands on a terrace playing an alto three-piece baroque recorder accompanied by three musicians seated around a table on which their music is perched: a woman plays the lute and two men play violin and cello.
  • Title Page: Singende Müse an der Pleisee (1736), engraving, 22 × 26 cm, German. Leipzig: Stadtgeschichtliches Museum. Ref. Website: The Face of Bach (2001); Web-site: Wikimedia (2009, b&w). A collection of strophic songs for the middle class “mass” market that was assembled and published in Leipzig in 1736, by “Sperontes”, the nom de plume of Johann Sigismund Scholze. Scholze was a talented and ingenious wordsmith who cannily developed the practice of fitting the words of his strophic songs to pre-existing music, almost all of which was familiar to his audience, and mid-18th-century documents credit two of the songs to Johann Sebastian Bach. The illustration shows groups of prosperous middle-class and upper-middle class residents of Leipzig indulging in favorite pastimes at an outdoor pleasure garden on the banks of the river Pleisse, with the cityscape as a backdrop. It has been suggested (perhaps fancifully) that the well-dressed gentleman seated at a table in the bottom right and the attractive (and evidently taller!) woman across the table playing a clavichord, may represent Bach and Anna Magdalena, out for an afternoon of leisure, away from the children, the hustle and bustle of the household, and the pandemonium of the Thomasschule (Towe, loc. cit.) A satyr creeps out from underneath their table!?An ornamental scroll around the title details at the top of the frame is surrounded by musical instruments, including two harps, violin, horn, ? cittern, ? bassoon, flute, and (left-centre) what appears to be two baroque-style recorders the heads, each with their characteristic beak and window/labium, clearly visible. One of two cherubs (winged putti) above holds a furled sheet music, the other holds a recorder and a crucifix. The recorder is tapered with an abruptly flared foot. In the foreground left a singer is accompanied by a second clavichord player.
  • From Johann Christian Trömer (alias Jean Chrétien Toucement), Des Deusch-Franços Schrifften …, Leipzig (1736), Trophy, engraving, German. Ref. Fulbourne: Walter Bergmann Slide WB 33; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Includes a trophy of two baroque alto recorders tied with a ribbon. The engraver seems to have gone to considerable pains to show us all aspects of the instruments (except the maker’s mark). But these slender instruments would be the German late baroque type, favouring high notes and generally played in pairs.
  • [Concert in a Park], painted decoration of the inside lid of a clavichord made by Hieronymus Albrecht Hass (1742), German. Hamburg: Hamburgmuseum, Music Room. Ref. Pottier (1992: 63, pl. XLIX); Archiv Moeck; Wikimedia Commons (2010, col.) In a park, a man standing plays a flute beside woman who appears to be conducting, with an open score on her lap; a man stands beside a woman who plays a clavichord; and a young girl plays a xylophone balanced on a tree-stump and her little brother plays the recorder.
  • Title page: Albertus Hirschberger, Philomena Cisterciensis (Burghausen, 1743), engraving, German. Munich: Universitätsbibliothek, Inv. No. 4 Liturg. 455,1.2. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.), Bowles (2002: 214, pl. 222, b&w). An elaborate ornamental arch has two pillars surmounted by horns, and on the face of each two trophies of musical instruments. Those on the left comprise trombone and bassoon above and recorder and oboe below. Those on the right comprise two folded trumpets above and recorder and oboe below. In front of the archway a putto sitting on a long drum plays a transverse flute surrounded by musical instruments including harp, tympani, horn, syrinx, violin, clavichord, flutes and cello.
  • Musical Pastimes (1749), copper engraving, German (Frankfurt-Leipzig). Vienna: Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien. Ref. RIdIM Austria: Nr. 390 (2001); Prof. Tilman Seebas (pers. comm., 2001). Musicians pass the time singing and playing harpsichord, cello, violin and recorder.
  • Musicalischer Zeitvertreib welchen man sich bey vergoenten Stunden, auf dem beliebten Clavier, durch Singen und Spielen auserlesener Oden. (1746 & 1750), Title Page, engraving, German. Munich: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. A 1750 edition published in Frankfurt and Leipzig was offered for sale in 2012 by Musikantiquariat Hans Schneider, Tutzing, Katalog Nr. 462 (2012). Ref.  Clemencic (1968: frontispiece, b&w); Website: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek digital (2015). A collection of pieces in three parts for domestic music-making with clavier, violin or flute, and voice. An elegant decoration on the title page depicts a clavichord above which is a rococo garland with musical instruments – flute, lute, violin and a baroque turned, three-piece alto recorder.
  • King David with Musical Putti and Angels (c. 1750), organ case decorations, plaster sculptures, German. Füssen: Basilika Sankt Mang. Detail 1. Detail 2. Atop the organ King David sings and plays the harp with one hand and holds a pipe of some kind in his other. He is accompanied by musical angels playing bassoon, and violins; and putti playing oboes, straight trumpets, folded trumpets, violins and two three-piece baroque recorders
  • Two Musicians (ca 1750), German. Location unknown: Eisenmann sale, Lepke, Berlin, 19–20 July 1935. Ref. Rasmussen (2002, Keyboard). “One plays clavichord, the other, recorder” (Rasmussen, loc. cit.) Not seen.
  • [Shepherd and Shepherdess] (1720–1780), porcelain figurine, German (? Frankenthal). Fulbourn: Anthony & Christina Rowland-Jones. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). This is a copy of a figurine of mid-18th century design. It is marked with a crown enclosing the monogram “cdc” A shepherd holds a short stubby ambiguous pipe while a shepherdess decorates a circlet with golden roses. There are more roses on the ground beside a sheep.
  • Music Party (ca 1750–1800), Anonymous, German. The Hague: Gemeentemuseum. Ref. Archiv Moeck; Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). A seated women plays a lute whilst her male companions play violin and a perfect late baroque recorder, the latter leaning against a pillar. The recorder player’s left hand is lowermost; finger holes one, two and three are covered; four, five and six are visible under the fingers. The little finger is raised as if to cover an offset hole which, however, is not visible. An accompanying verse reads:

Dann ist die Musica, was Hertz und Seele rüret,
Wan man den reinen Klang, in sangsten Thönen spühret

Back to Ganassi: Imitate a singer! The date may seem late but there is other evidence that the recorder was used for domestic music-making in Holland well into the second half of the eighteenth century. Cf. Vincent Janszoon van der Vinne’s Musical Gathering, dated (1751–1811).

  • Angel Musicians (18th century), fresco, German. Bad Schussenried: Kloster Schussenried, Pfarrkirche St Magnus, tribune. Ref. Website: Anges Musiciens (2010, col.) On one side of the transept is a gallery with three panels depicting two clarinets; flute and two recorders; bassoon and two oboes. The opposite gallery has panels depicting two trumpets; a kettle drum; two trombones. The recorders are alto and tenor baroque models. Schussenried Abbey (Kloster Schussenried, Reichsabtei Schussenried) was a Premonstratensian monastery. Although founded in the 12th century, its buildings were extensively rebuilt and decorated from 1752.
  • Porcelain lamp (1755), German. Frankfurt am Main: Historisches Museum, Inv. X28 452. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Fhm – 179). The lamp is decorated with a shepherd and shepherdess embracing. The shepherd has a small pipe (possibly a recorder) in his belt. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • Man Playing Pipe and Drum (1755), Hochst porcelain figurine, German. Bedford: The Higgins. Ref. Charles Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). A man in a tricorne hat and a blue coat plays a duct flute in his right hand whilst beating a long drum with the other. Two finger holes are visible above his right hand and two below, and others are likely to be hidden beneath his hand, so this is a flageolet or recorder rather than a three-holed pipe.
  • Landscape with Shepherd (1746–1755), German. Altenhof Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde, Herrenhaus. Ref. Bildarchiv Foto Marburg (DISKUS-Objekt-Dokument 00071285, b&w). A young shepherd boy plays a cylindrical pipe (flageolet or recorder) to his sheep.
  • Porcelain group (ca 1759), Anonymous, after Johann Friedrich Lück. Mannheim: Städtisches Reiß-Museum, Inv. RNN 1973/8. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, MHrm – 127). A cavalier and lady dressed as shepherd and shepherdess. The latter has a recorder. Not seen.
  • Pastoral Group (ca 1755), Meissen porcelain figurine, 8.4 cm high, German. London: Christie’s, Continental Ceramics, 8 July 2002, Lot 291. Ref. Artfact (2004). Blue crossed swords mark. A shepherd in a black plumed hat, puce jacket, white shirt, yellow breeches and black shoes, stands before a tree stump playing a recorder, his dog seated beside him, two fighting rams and four sheep before them, on a shaped rectangular base applied with flowers and foliage (goat broken off and lacking and associated crack around back of tree stump, two branches broken off and lacking, chipping to leaf, hat, bow of hat, fingers and thumb of right hand and ribbon of right shoe, minute chips to dog’s ear, each ram with horn lacking and with chipping to one ear, one ewe with chipped front right hoof, chipping to leaves and flowers on base).
  • French Clock with Meissen figurine on music-box base (ca 1760), German (Meissen/Dresden). Sorento: Museo Correale di Terranova. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). The ornate clock is by Baillon, but the designer of the figurine is unknown. A shepherd plays a perfect baroque recorder whilst a shepherdess dances for him.
  • The Enjoyable Lesson (1750–1760), engraving, German (Augsburg). Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Print Collection HB 25 401. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Ngm – 1000). A man plays a recorder.
  • Set of Meissen porcelain tea-cups in a travelling case with a large plate in the lid (1770), German. Berlin: Charlottenburg Palace. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). The design has a scene depicting a shepherd with a pipe, all in black, but very clear. The pipe has the shape of a late baroque alto recorder with a medium flare bell and is played right hand lowermost.
  • Trophies of Musical Instruments (1766), decorative wall panels, German. Ratzeburg (Schleswig-Holstein): Kreismuseum Herzogtum Lauenburg in Herrenhaus, Rokokosaal. Ref. Postcard: Verlag Konrad Hauser, Ratzeburg; Walter Bergmann ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2003). Decorative panels on the side-walls of this rococo room have trophies with musical instruments. One has a lute, flute and baroque tenor recorder; another has horn, oboe and a baroque bass recorder with a bocal shown entering the top of the windcap. There are possibly more recorders in the decorations of this room.
  • [Musical Shepherds] (ca 1770), Meissen porcelain figurine, German. Chatsworth: Devonshire Collection. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2003). Musical shepherds play flute, hurdy-gurdy and lute, but a violin, bow and a pale brown recorder lie on the ground below. The recorder is of baroque design, an alto with bulges and rings at the joints and a clear window/labium. Below this, but still in the head section, are two finger holes with three more below, all in line. Holes six and seven have not been painted on or are otherwise missing.
  • Shepherd and Shepherdess (ca 1770), Hochst porcelain figurine, 19 cm high, German. New York: Christie’s, English, Continental and Chinese Export Ceramics and Glass, 11 October 1990, Lot 126. A shepherd standing holding a recorder, a dog at his feet, his companion kneeling to tie a garland around a lamb’s neck, a flower-filled basket at his feet, on a grassy mound base (restoration to her hat and dog, chips to basket, flowers, recorder and bows).
  • Boy with a Flute, porcelain figurine, 16.5 cm high, German (Fulda). Hamburg: Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Inv. 1899.66. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Hmkg – 127). A boy standing in knee-breeches and decorated hat, holding in one hand a small recorder in the other a flower.
  • Family Album of C.G. Müller, paper, 11.6 × 20 cm, German. Stuttgart: Landesmuseum Württenberg, Inv. 1934-100. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2003, Slm – 310). A goatherd with a shepherdess and sheep plays a tenor length pipe (possibly a duct flute). The instrument is cylindrical with a short bell flare. All the player’s fingers are down, the right hand lowermost, but the hands are held high on the instrument. The lips are relaxed and he may not be actually playing. Details of the mouthpiece are uncertain.
  • A Collegium Musicum (ca 1775), German. Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Ref. Salmen (1969: 81); Early Music 1 (3): 136, fig., b&w (1973); Oja (1978: 35, item 187); Paris RIdIM (1999); Dearling (1996: 167, col.) A page from a family album. What appears to be a mixture of professional (hatted) and amateur musicians (hatless) sing and play around an enormously long harpsichord, conducted by a man at the back waving a roll of paper. Three singers are accompanied by three violins, cello, two trumpets and three wind-instruments some of which may well be recorders. One, with his back to us standing beside the harpsichordist, plays what is probably a bassoon but just might be a basset recorder. On the wall at the back of the room hang two violins and another recorder.
  • Pastorale (1775), gouache on paper, 16.5 × 12.5 cm, German. Vienna: Boris Wilnitsky Fine Arts, Lot 3JGW5. Ref. Sotheby’s New York (2002). Part of a fan made in the early 19th century. It was formerly in the album of Christian G. Gross, who studied medicine at the University in Halle, Germany, in the 1750s. On a grassy knoll amidst the forest, a seated woman and a man standing before her are entertained by a shepherd who plays a long ambiguous pipe. Around them are sheep, cattle, and a dog.
  • La Bonne Mère (ca 1778), porcelain group, Anonymous, after Johann Friedrich Lück. Mannheim: Städtisches Reiß-Museum. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999: MHrm 140). A family group with a small ? recorder played by a child. Not seen.
  • Porcelain figurine (1770–1780), German. Mannheim: Städtisches Reiß-Museum, Inv. Ch 1001. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, MHrm – 77). A boy plays a recorder. Not seen.
  • Cavalier with Flute (1775–1779), porcelain figurine, Anonymous, after Johan Peter Melchior. Mainz: Mittelrheinisches Landesmuseum, Iv. 28/63. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, MZlm – 105). This work is catalogued under ‘blockflöte’ rather than ‘flöte’. Not seen.
  • Fluteplayer with Dog (ca 1760), porcelain figurine, 17 cm high, German. Brunswick: Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Inv. Por 903. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, BSm – 278). A young shepherd plays a small shawm or recorder. Not seen.
  • Flute-playing Shepherd with Dog (ca 1775), porcelain figurine, 17 cm high, German. Brunswick: Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Inv. Für 7190. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, BSm – 304). A young shepherd plays a small shawm or recorder, a dog at his feet. Not seen.
  • Flute Player (ca 1780), oil on wood, German. Paris: Cité de la Musique, Inv. E.999.7.1 Ref. Meloen (2000). A man in an elegant blue costume stands beside a rock amidst a mountainous landscape, looking down at an open music book on the rock beside him. He plays a perfectly depicted baroque alto recorder, right hand lowermost, all fingers down. In order to see the music he plays his recorder from the corner of his mouth.
  • Sketches and Notebook (1784–1786), red ink on paper, 19.0 × 23.5 cm, German. Munich: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Inv. Cgm 8532. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, bs – H 486). Marginal illustrations: at the top are sheep and cow heads; at the bottom is a standing shepherd boy with a small recorder or shawm. Not seen.
  • The Birdcatcher (1792), ink on paper, oval, 11.8 × 17.5 cm, German. Frankfurt am Main: Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Inv. L.St. 298, fol. S. 198. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Fmk – 146). Transverse oval portrait of a shepherd boy who has caught a bird by a thread; a small recorder or shawm is in his belt. Not seen.
  • Boy with a Bird (1794), red ink on paper, oval, 10.4 × 19 cm (paper), 9.5 × 12.5 cm. (image), German. Frankfurt am Main: Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Inv. L.St. 403, fol. S. 19. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Fmk – 146). Transverse oval picture of a shepherd boy who holds a captive bird on a string. He has an alto shawm or recorder in his belt. Not seen.
  • The Shepherds from the Mountains, porcelain figurine, 36 cm high, German (Frankenthal). Heidelberg: Kurpfälzisches Museum, Inv. Po 636 / L 324. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2002, HDkm – 87); Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). Shepherds play a duct flute and a bagpipe.
  • Le Garçon content, à Augsburg chez J.J. Haid et fils (18th century), engraving. ex collection of Walter Bergmann. Ref. Recorder & Music Magazine 1 (8): 227 (1965). Shows an elaborately turned baroque recorder.
  • Gilded trophies on carved wooden doors (18th century), German. Berlin: Charlottenburg Palace, Audience Chamber (101), Red Chamber (102), etc. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). Gilded trophies of musical instruments include several showing parts of recorders, e.g. a recorder head with window/labium and three finger holes, foot-joints, beaked mouthpieces, etc. All are of baroque-style alto recorders with decorative rings.
  • [Title unknown] (18th century), painting, German. Berlin: Charlottenburg Palace, Upper State Appartments. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). Depicts a country scene with a boy at the left playing a pipe to a rapt group of six smaller children. There are no details, but the pipe is of alto size, cylindrical and with a medium bell flare.
  • Stone-carved trophy (18th century), German. Berlin: Charlottenburg Palace, Garden Room, on pilaster at left of glass doors to garden. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). The trophy includes an oboe and a possible recorder inverted and crossed with a second oboe. The recorder is of late baroque design with a rounded beak, with decorative rings above the bell and at the centre of the body.
  • Musicians in a Church Interior (early 18th century), German. The Hague: Gemeentemuseum. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones pers. comm., 2001). A small choir (with two boys visible) in a protestant church with recorder and flute playing together with continuo played on both organ and harpsichord. The recorder player reads from a score entitled Cantata …Flauto balanced on the edge of the Italian-style harpsichord. The alto/tenor sized recorder is of the slender three-piece baroque style well fitted to the high tessitura of recorder parts by Bach and Telemann. Beneath the harpsichord the following verse appears:

Rührt die Zauberthon empfindich deine Brust,
Erregt dis Saiterspiel bey dir vergnügte Lust,
Wird durch die Harmonie der Sinnen Kraft benomen:
Gedencke nur dabey; sie ist vom Himmel Kommen.

If a magical feeling stirs within your chest,
And this wonderful singing inflames your desire,
Such harmony of the senses is overpowering:
One cannot but obey; it is heaven-sent.

  • Banquet (early 18th century), oil and pencil on canvas, 96 × 125 cm, German. Munich: Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Inv. 13280. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Mstag – 781). Behind a banqueting table musicians play three violins (or two violins and viola) with a bass recorder. The bocal of the latter is affixed to the top centre of the cap; the bell end is widely flared and decorated. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • A Huntswoman and a Shepherd (mid-18th century), 2 Meissen porcelain figurines, 15.8 cm & 15.8 cm high, German. New York: Christie’s, Fine French and Continental Furniture, 24 May 2001, Lot 427. Ref. Website: Artfact (2004). With blue crossed swords mark. She wearing a blue-lined yellow jacket and skirt and a blue tri-corner hat and bodice, a shotgun resting in the crook of her arm; he leaning against a tree stump and playing a recorder, wearing a yellow hat, turquoise jacket, puce britches and a dog recumbent at his feet.
  • Country Scene (18th century), porcelain figurine from Ludwigsburg. Location unknown: exhibited at Third Biennale of Antiquaries, Florence, September-October (1963). Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). Seated beneath a gnarled tree-trunk with their lambs, a shepherd plays a bagpipe and a shepherdess a conical duct flute (flageolet or recorder). From the tree there hangs a rustic lute.
  • Apollo and the Muses (18th century), oil on panel, 320 × 175 cm, German. Munich: Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Ansbach, Regierung von Mittelfranken, Inv. 4222 (6072). Ref. Munich RidIM (1999, Mstag – 780, b&w). Apollo sits among the Muses at the foot of Mount Parnassus, with his right hand holding his lyre. To the left below him sits one of the Muses who strums a guitar and another who holds a ? note book. on the ground before these two are some sheet music and various instruments: French horn, a bass recorder (with bocal), bombard (with key and fontanelle) and several other pipes. Atop Parnassus in the background a circular temple can be seen and on a ridge beside it is Pegasus.
  • Gilt-relief trophies on side of large free-standing circular stone (18th century). Bamburg: Neue Residenz (1703). Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999). Two of the trophies have what may be recorders. One (crossed with a small trumpet, a syrinx and a hunting horn) shows a clear beak and window/labium with three upper finger holes, but is damaged. The other, on the central trophy (crossed with a violin, a small trumpet and an early baroque bow), is of alto size, crudely cut-off at the beak end. The upper part is covered by the violin; its window/labium lies between two ring mouldings, and a single finger hole is visible. The lower part has three clear finger holes, then a ring moulding, then a key with a square end.
  • Allegory of Church Music (mid-18th century), engraving, German. Bremen Kunsthalle, Print Collection, Inv. 71.410. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, BMkh – 154). Angel musicians high in a church with a large organ play many instruments, including at left a recorder. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • Meissen porcelain: cup and saucer with medallions (late 18th century), Anonymous after Greuze. Mannheim: Städtische Reiss-Museum, Inv. C b 36 (96). Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, MHrm – 152). In a large oval medallion are a children’s drum and ? recorder. A similar group to La Bonne Mère (ca 1778) above. Not seen.
  • [Untitled], marble sculpture (late 18th century), German. Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, O.2210. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Ngm – 183). A naked putto sits on a goat’s back holding a curious duct flute in one hand which has no finger holes but has a double-flared bell and a central section with double ring decorations above and below. Notes (in part) by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • Recorder-playing Youth (1701-1800), sketch, crayon on blue paper, German. Cologne: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Z 5598. Ref. Munich RIdIm (1999: KNwr 395). A youth wearing only a loincloth and a cap, sits on a stool playing an alto-sized flared-bell recorder.
  • Shepherd and Shepherdess with a He-Goat and a Flute (18th century), porcelain figurine, Germany (Meissen). Lund: Kulturen (Kulturhisoriska museet), KM 60.163. Ref. RIdIM Stockholm (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A shepherd boy plays a duct flute to a shepherdess, and a goat. He plays left hand uppermost. The window/labium is clear; one finger hole is visible between his hands; there is a double hole under the third finger of the right hand, and a very large offset little finger hole. Thus this is probably a recorder. The presence of the double finger hole is interesting! Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Shepherd Playing the Flute (18th century), painting, Germany. Location unknown. Ref. Universitatario Olandese di Storia dell’Arte Firenze, Special Photo Study Collections, Image 0038863 (2009, b&w). A shepherd wearing a laurel wreath and seated beneath a tree plays a one-piece flared-bell alto recorder watched by a horse, two dogs, a stag and a duck.
  • Angel Concert (18th century), ink & gouache on paper, 18.7 × 14.7 cm, German. Munich: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Inv. gm 8416, Fol. 257 r. Ref. Munich RIdIM (2009, Mbs – H 486). Angel musicians (all instruments indistinct or schematic). In the gallery are six angels with trumpets and timpani. Below one angel plays a positive organ. To the left, four angels sing from sheet music; behind them angels play lutes (one small, possibly a mandola). To the right three angels play violins, and one plays a cello; behind them three angels play cornetti and one plays a bass recorder, the bocal, window and fontanelle clearly visible. An inscription below reads:

Weil Jesus über mein Hertz thuet walten,
die Engel himmlische music halten.

  • [Musical Group] (18–19th century), porcelain figurine, German (Meissen). Rome: Pinacoteca Capitolina. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). A boy plays a musette, a standing man plays a ? duct flute (broken) and a seated women plays a xylophone with two beaters.
  • Pair of Angels Making Music, statues carved in wood, coloured & gilded, ca 65 × 45 cm, Southern German. Tegernsee, Germany: Kunst & Auktionshaus Walter Ginhart (2016), unsold (estimate was €4,500!) One angel plays a long-necked lute, the other barqoue recorder, details of the beak, window/labium and holes for 7 fingers clearly visible.


  • Enameled jewellery box (18th century), Hungarian. Bratislava: Szlovák Nemzeti Múzeum. Ref. Bali (2011: 75, fig., b&w). An enamel picture depicts a charming courtship scene in which he plays his recorder and she she waves her fan.


  • Trophy of Musical Instruments (ca 1724), carved oak panel, Irish. Dublin: St Michan’s Church, panel at front of organ loft. Ref. Insight Cards: Postcard (2005); Barra Boydell (pers. comm., ex Anthony Rowland-Jones 2005); Web-site, flickr: MaestroBen’s photostream (2007, col.) A trophy of 17 musical instruments including harp, violins, cello (with frets), viol, cittern, bassoons, oboe, trumpets, lute, etc., and three baroque recorders (2 tenors and one alto). The organ itself was built by John Baptiste Cuvillié between 1723 and 1725, and the ground plan of the church shows that the panel was in place by 1724 . The woodcarver is unknown, but this panel bears a striking resemblance to the frame by John Houghton for Bindon’s portrait of Jonathan Swift, which hangs in St Patrick’s Cathedral deanery. John Houghton is known to have worked at St Michan’s.


  • Man Playing a Recorder (ca 1700), pen & ink on white paper with large stains or smudges, 11 × 10 cm, North Italian. Milan: Biblioteca Ambrosiana, ND Cat. No. 6704, BA Shelfmark F 234 inf. n. 880. Pasted to folio 59 of the codex. A striding man holds a recorder in both hands to his mouth. He wears a belted tunic (?) and a plumed hat. On the left are trees or shrubbery, vaguely depicted.
  • Pastorale (17–18th century), oil on canvas, Italian. Ref. Gabrius Data Bank (2001, b&w). Shepherds with their beasts around them, pass the time singing and dancing to the sound of a flared-bell pipe (shawm or duct flute, possibly a recorder) played by a man in a brimmed hat and jerkin. Auctioned 9 December 1992, unsold (Gabrius, loc. cit.)
  • Minerva and the Muses (ca 1700), oil on canvas, 30 × 40 cm, Italian. Düsseldorf: Kunstmuseum. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, Dük – 95); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999). Against a landscape the Muses stand in front of a draped curtain. To the left, Euterpe (Muse of music and lyric poetry) plays a duct flute the details of which are not clear other than the window/labium and the slight (recorder-like) flare at the bell end. To the right, Calliope (Muse of epic poetry) plays the lyre. Amid the Muses stands Minerva with helmet and shield.
  • Outdoor Concert (ca 1700), Italian. Milan: Private collection. Ref. Angelo Zaniol pers. comm., 2000 & 2004); Paulo Biordi (pers. comm., 2000). Musicians sing and play lute, cello, violin, viola and a three-piece baroque alto recorder. A huge man in the middle beats time with a roll of paper. On a hillside behind, shepherds play bagpipes and two flared-bell pipes. Above, angels (one holding a cross) and putti seem to be entangled in the branches of a tree!
  • Shepherd Boy with a Recorder (ca 1700), oil on panel, 56.5 × 45.2 cm, Northern Italian. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Art, Northbrook Collection, Inv. 29.2.16. A smiling boy wearing a hat with a laurel wreath holds a small more or less cylindrical recorder, left hand uppermost. All four fingers of his lowermost hand seem to be covering their holes. This painting has similarities to Murillo’s paintings of urchins (mischievous children, poorly or raggedly dressed), its former attribution to that artist is no longer accepted.
  • Organ case: decorative panels beside the right-hand column (? 1705+), gilt wood on pale grey background, Italian. Venice: Chiesa di San Pantalon. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). Depicts four crossed instruments, two of which may be recorders, one in the upper pair, one in the lower pair. The upper is of tenor size, the lower of alto size. Their upper sections are of baroque design, with a curved lip at the mouthpiece. There is no separate foot-joint, but a slight bell flare. Both instruments have two finger holes showing at the upper end.
  • Concert (ca 1725), Italian (Neopolitan). Milan: Castello Sforzesco, Museo d’Arte Antica. Ref. Oja (1978: 9, item 47). Indoors, a quintet of musicians play lute, recorder, cittern, violin, guitar, harpsichord. Not seen.
  • Organ case: decoration between pillars and arch (? 1725), gilt wood-carvings, Italian. Venice: Chiesa di San Rocco. Carvings over the organ include eight recorders, all baroque in style, two shown complete, others partly hidden. They have a hole for the little finger on a moveable bottom joint. Other instruments include violin, flute, trumpets, guitar, lutes. A carved angel at the right side of the organ plays the flute but has a recorder of the same style as the others tied to his belt. Part of the church was re-constructed in 1725 which is the probably date of the carvings. The artist is not named. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.)
  • [Untitled] ?1730), fresco, Italian. Padua: Palazzo Emo Capadilista. Ref. Capri, in Fabbri (1964-1967, 3); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A man on a balcony seen in side profile next to a theorbist plays a flared recorder with an elongated beak. Opposite them a couple dance. In the background is a grand palace with columns, balustrades and statues.
  • Concert Italien (1752–1754), engraving. Location unknown. Ref. Libin (1976: 17, fig. 3); Early Music 16 (3): 361 (1988); Thomson & Rowland-Jones (1995: 207, pl. 41); Wikimedia (2016, b&w). Shows a group of prominent Italian musicians: Scarlatti, Tartini, Sammartini, Locatelli & Lanzetti in which Sammartini plays an instrument that looks like a cross between an oboe and recorder, perhaps to show that he played both instruments. In front of them a cat sings to its own music. A caption beneath, in French, implies that the music would have been very pretty if the cat had not wanted to sing its part.

De ces grands Maitres d’Italie
Le Concert seroit fort joli,
Si le Chat que l’on voit icy
N’y vouloit Chanter sa partie

De deux coeurs que ta chaine lie
C’est ainsy, petit Die d’Amour,
Que quelque Animal chaque jour
Vient troubler la douce harmonie

  • Frontispiece: Storia della Musica … (1757), by Giovan Battista Martini, published Bologna, Italian. Ref. Capri in Fabbri (1964–1967, 3: 230); Angelo Zaniol ex Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A decorative border includes straight trumpets, violin, lute, syrinx, triangle (with rings) and a bass recorder with bocal entering the top of the windcap and an ornate flared bell.
  • Pastoral Concert (1759), painted wood, on the inside lid of a spinet (épinette à la quinte) by Milanese harpsichord maker Giovanni Domenico Birger fl. 1746-1759). Rome: Museo degli Strumenti Musicali, Inv. PV 8408 (on loan from the Palazio Venezia). Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). A couple dance amongst classical ruins to music provided by a seated singer accompanied by a pipe, violin, harpsichord and cello. The pipe has a mouthpiece too broad to be an oboe; the player’s lips are relaxed; the fingering shows fingers of the upper (left) hand down and four in the lower (right) hand down; and there are no keys. Thus, this is likely to be a recorder.
  • Title Page: Storia Della Musica, Tomo Terzo … by Giovan Battista Martini, Bologna (1781), border decoration, Italian. Bologna: Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale. Ref. Avanzini (1995: 25, b&w). The border decoration comprises musical instruments, including violin, oboes, lute, syrinx, trumpet and a bass recorder. The latter has a bocal entering the top of the windcap and a widely flared bell. The window/labium and several finger holes can be seen.
  • Music Table (late 18th century). Milan: Castello Sforzesco, Gallery (but which one?) A music table with music stands along the back, five fluted legs. The entire surface (8–9′ long and 2–3′) wide is covered with intarsia decorations. The musical instruments depicted include two soprano-sized baroque recorders, a cittern, two tenor-sized 1-keyed flutes, viola, oboe, trombone and a natural horn. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.)
  • Two Flautists (16/18th century), oil on panel, 76 × 63 cm, after Giorgione. Vercelli: Museo Francesco Borgogna, Cat. 112. Ref. Rowland-Jones (1997c, 2: 51, fig., b&w); Paolo Biordi (pers. comm., 2000). Depicts two shepherds who each hold a duct flute (possibly recorders, judging from the flared bell of one of them): one is a coarse-swarthy man in a leather jerkin (a real shepherd), the other is an androgynous personage dressed in classical style (an Arcadian, pretend shepherd). Their instruments point away from each other and they do not converse – a parody of pretend pastoralism. They inhabit different worlds.
  • Rustic Scene (1700–1749), high relief in wax, 16.0 × 11.5 cm, Italian. Venice: Museo Correr. A shepherdess seated beneath an apple tree is serenaded by a shepherd playing a pipe, a dog at his feet. Unfortunately the pipe is broken: it may represent a recorder.
  • [Title unknown] (18th century), ? marble statue, ca 1 m high, Italian. Palermo: Villa Tasca (owned by Count Giuseppe Tasca d’Amerita). Ref. Medici Stucchi  (1989: 175); Constance Scholten (pers. comm. 2005). A naked boy plays a soprano duct flute (almost certainly a recorder, in perfect fingering position – beak, window, and slight bell flare are all clear). It is in Canova style, but the artist and date are unknown. The statue stands in a corner, the walls of which are covered in trompe l’oeil wallpaper.
  • Recorder Player (early 18th century), oil on copper, 20 × 24 cm, Italian. Udine: Civici Musei e Gallerie di Storia e Arte. Ref. Tibia 23: pl. 2 – col. (1998); Sardelli (2001: 196-197 & pl. 1, b&w; 2007: pl. 2, b&w). Archiv Moeck. A handsome woman holds an illegible sheet of music in her right hand and a three-piece turned baroque soprano recorder with ivory ferrules in her left hand. On a corner of the table on which she is resting her right elbow more music and an ink-pot with pen are visible. Intriguingly, the V-shaped neck of her gown is fastened by four embroidered recorders crossed in pairs in front of the lace which hides her décolletage. It is difficult to escape the impression that she is a respected soloist; the ink-pot and scores indicate that she was also a composer. The appearance of her clothing (e.g. her andrienne, a kind of shawl) has led to the belief that she herself, and the painter, were French, but there is nothing in the portrait to prevent its having been painted locally. Sardelli (loc. cit.) has suggested that she could even be the player, marvellously talented but unknown, for whom Vivaldi composed his singular and difficult flautino concertos.
  • Trophies (early 18th century), partly gilt relief, Italian. Bergamo: Palazzo Terzi, Sala della Musica. Ref. Charles Rowland-Jones (2003, pers. comm.) 12–15 panels with trophies in low relief including a mixture of musical instruments (appropriately) and military paraphernalia (less appropriately). Two panels show recorders. The reliefs are in a pale colour and partly gilt. One shows a complete baroque soprano recorder with the usual turnery, its window/labium and finger holes all present and correct, including a single offset hole for the lowermost (little) finger. Two panels away, the head end of a similar recorder sticks out from the lower part of that trophy, visible as far as the beginning of the window/labium.
  • Man with a Sword and a Boy Musician (18th century), painting, Italian (Veneto). Location unknown: auctioned 11 June 2002 (unsold) [Possibly Sotheby’s Sale MI0201, Old Master Paintings, Milan]. Ref. Website: Gabrius Databank (2007, col.) A man holding a sword over his shoulder gazes proudly at us. Beside and slightly behind him, a young boy pipes on a slender, cylindrical duct flute, possibly a recorder.
  • Musical Company (18th century), oil on canvas, Italian (Lombard). Ref. Website: Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.) A caricature of a band of musicians around a table who play cello, bass, trumpet, horn, bassoon, violin, and clarinet. On the ground, in front of the table, a small monkey plays a cylindrical duct flute. A pendant offered for sale with this shows a group of singers around a harpsichord in front of which a poodle joins in.
  • Ceiling decoration (18th century), Italian. Mantua: Palazzo Ducale, Second Tapestry Room. A woman sings from music, holding a recorder with seven holes (the little finger hole possibly slightly offset), the window/labium area of which is not clear. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.)
  • Stucco trophy (18th century), Italian. Venice: Mueo Querini Stampalia, 2nd floor, ‘Green Room’. Stucco trophy with lute, two trumpets, three small ? recorder bodies and the upper half of a recorder seen from below, showing the mouthpiece and block, turned joint, and thumb hole. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.)
  • Stucco trophies (18th century), Italian. Venice: Mueo Querini Stampalia, 2nd floor, ‘Print Room’. Nine complete recorders are depicted in seven trophies. They are all one-piece instruments with a slight bell flare, with decorated turning on some. One shows the thumb hole as well as finger holes. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm.)
  • Still-life with Musical Instruments, Flowers and Fruit (18th century), canvas, 107 × 147 cm, Italian (Bergamo School). Location unknown: sold by Mes Perrin, Chapelle, Fermantin, Versailles at Palais des Congrès, 8 June 1974. Ref. Sale catalogue: photograph (1974); Paris RIdIM (2000). Beneath a hanging, fringed drape is a cloth-covered table on top of which lie a violin, a guitar, a lute, an ornate box, some papers, a book, a plate of peaches and a bunch of flowers. To the left a man holds a small flared-bell duct flute (probably a recorder) in his left hand. The beak, window/labium of the latter and two finger holes are clearly visible, and there may be a maker’s mark just below the window.
  • Pastorale (18th century), 80 × 60 cm, Italian (Venetian School). Private collection: exhibited at the Biennale des Antiquaires, Palazzo Strozzi, Florence (1967). Ref. Paris RIdIM (2000). A country family are gathered around a trough from which sheep are drinking as a woman pours water from a pail. Behind her a young woman fills another pail from a well. To the left a man holds a crook, a woman beside and slightly behind him. In the bottom right hand corner a young boy plays a long, cylindrical pipe, probably a duct flute (flageolet or recorder).
  • Four trophies on decorated organ case (18th century), gil woodcarving, Italian. Monreale (Sicily): Abbazia Benedettino San Martino delle Scale. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). The organ was made by Faffaele la Vallee (1594), but the case is late baroque. It is not mentioned in any guide book. The trophies are situated beneath the architrave near the top of the organ-case. The second trophy from the left shows a shawm crossed with a recorder. The latter has a very curved beak and a clearly window/labium and appears to be in three jointed sections with baroque turning. The middle sections shows two finger holes above the crossed shawm and two below with one finger hole in the foot-joint. There is a very slight flare to the bell end with more turnery at the bell. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000).
  • Landscape with Sleeping Shepherd (18th century), Italian (Roman School). Italy: Private collection. Ref. Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001). A sleeping shepherd holds in his right hand a soprano recorder with a clear beak, a considerable bell- and bore-flare, and double holes close to the foot.
  • Allegory of Music (18th century), oil on canvas, Italian (Bolognese). Ref. Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.) A decorative panel with three oval frames depicting a woman playing a violin, an angel dancing, and a man playing a ? lute respectively. Along the top margin of the panel and hanging down the sides is a tasselled drape. Around and between the oval frames are flowers, and musical instruments. The latter include lute, trumpet, violin, tambourine, and two narrowly conical pipes (cornetti, or duct flutes).
  • Circle of Dancing Putti (early 18th century), canvas, 61 × 109 cm, Italian (Bolognese School). Location unknown: sold by Kohn-Druoust Richelieu, Salles 5 & 6, 30 October 1996, lot 36. Ref. Sale Catalogue (1996: 36). A circle of putti dance to music played by two of their company who play drum and a cylindrical pipe which is played two-handed and looks like a recorder, though the beak is in shadow and no finger holes are visible.
  • Freize, stone carving (? 1770), Italian. Noto (Sicily): Palazzo di Giustizia, facade.Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A trophy centre-right depicts a horn crossed with a cylindrical recorder with a distinctive beak and window/labium.
  • Designs with Instruments (?18th century), ink drawing, 24.8 × 24.7 cm, Italian. Cleveland: Museum of Art, Inv. 27.337. Ref. Ford (1991: #253). “The four corners of the drawing depict column capitals; at the bottom, writing appears. Upper left: a jingle ring, four treble shawms or trumpets (mouthpieces not visible), a coiled horn (bell not visible), what appears to be the mouthpiece of a double-reed instrument, and what may be the fontanelle and bell of a basset recorder. Lower right corner: four shawms or trumpets (only bells visible). If indeed shawms and a recorder are among the instruments, this may suggest that the drawing dates from the 17th century. The writing at the bottom is indistinct but may be transcribed as follows: ‘Levare La Cantonata no. 1 con Levare La colonna nell angolo e porni & … di sotto un co … iglia e S. … Una Maschera’ ” (Ford, loc. cit.) This implies that the F bass (ie basset) recorder had gone out of use by 1700, which was certainly not the case!
  • The Flute-player (18th century), oil on canvas, 68.3 × 55.0 cm, Italian. Location unknown: auctioned Phillips, London (2001). Ref. Phillips auction catalogue (2001: 37, pl. 33, col.); Gabrius Data Bank, OMP (2002, col.) A youth viewed side-on plays a flared bell recorder, the beak, window/labium and four finger holes for the lowermost hand of which are clearly visible.
  • Tavern Scene (18th century), Italian. Ref. Gabrius Data Bank (2002, b&w). Before a tavern, a seated man smoking listens to peasant boy playing a small cylindrical pipe (possibly a recorder) and a man playing the hurdy gurdy.
  • Musical Angels (18th century), fresco, Italian (Cremona). Monticelli d’Ongina: Chiesa Collegiata di San Lorenzo. Ref. Genesi (1995: fig. 5, b&w). One of two oval panels depicting musical angels who sing and play violin, viol, lute, trombone, flute and recorder. The latter is described by Genesi (loc. cit.) as a cornetto, but the beaked mouthpiece, the hint of a window/labium, the position of the hands, and the relaxed mouth are more characteristic of the recorder.
  • Music-making on a Castle Terrace (Allegory of Hearing) (18th century), oil on canvas, 119 × 73 cm, Italian (Piedmont). Auctioned: Old Master Paintings, Dorotheum, Vienna, 12 June 2001, Lot 17. Ref. Website: International Auctioneers (2006, col.) A female singer is accompanied by a man in a black velvet suit and red socks playing a baroque tenor recorder, and a woman playing a harpsichord.
  • Interior with Putti Making Music and Dancing Around a Fire, oil on canvas, 60.8 × 131.1 cm, Italian (Venetian). Location unknown: Sotheby’s (London, Olympia) Sale WO6717, Old Master Paintings, 25 April 2006, Lot 396 (sold). Ref. Catalogue, Sotheby’s Sale W0617 (2007: Lot 396, col.); Website: Gabrius (2007, col.) Seven putti gambol in front of an open fire. One plays a tambourine (with jingle rings), another plays a slender conical pipe with a flared bell (possibly a recorder).
  • Angel Playing a Flute (18th century), Italy (Rome). Location unknown: auctioned 05/07/2006 (unsold) Ref. Website: Gabrius Data Bank (2007, col.) A young angel sits on the pedestal of a pillar overlooking a river playing a cylindrical pipe, probably intended to represent a recorder since the fingers and thumb are disposed as for playing that instrument.
  • Pastoral Landscape, with a Shepherd playing a Pipe and a Girl Dancing (18th century), oil on canvas, 74.2 × 108 cm, North Italian. Location unknown: Sotheby’s (London, Olympia) Sale W04705, Old Master Paintings, 20 April 2004, Lot 381 (sold). Ref. Catalogue Sotheby’s (London, Olympia) Sale W04705 (2004: Lot 381, col.) Holding her apron out in front of her, a woman dances to music played by a shepherd on a tenor-sized conical pipe with a hole for the little finger of the lowermost (left) hand, and a small hole which may indicate the window/labium of a recorder. Behind them, another woman does some washing in a trough, and a there is a cow and some sheep.
  • Flute Player (18th century), oil on canvas, 50.5 × 38.9 cm, Italian. Chambéry: Musée des Beaux-Arts, Inv. M 1332. Ref. Website: Joconde (2007, col.) A young man holding a stout duct flute turns to look at us over his shoulder. Only the head of the instruments is visible.
  • Musical Trio, oil on canvas laid on panel, oval, 34.9 × 47.3 cm, Italy (18th century, Venetian). Philadelphia: Samuel T. Freeman & Co., The International Sale, Old Master Paintings, Drawings & Prints, 7 December 2011, Lot 101. A young man plays a small lute, another a violin, and a third, older man who appears to be singing holds a small cylindrical pipe (possibly a recorder) which he is using to keep time by banging on the bench upon which his companions are sitting. One of a pair auctioned together, the other entitled Maiden with a Tambourine.
  • Elevation of Saint ?Martino (18th century), marble sculptural panel, Italian. Detail. Monreale: Abbazia Benedettino San Martino delle Scale, Sacristy. Ref. Website: Anges musiciens (2011, col.) A saint is carried heavenwards by putti to music provided by angels playing waisted fiddle and a perfectly depicted alto baroque recorder. The recorder is gilded.
  • Polish

  • Angel Musicians (ca 1755), woodcarving, Poland. Poznań: Archcathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, choir loft, top of organ case. Ref. Bowles (2002: 231, pl. 248, b&w). An angel musician bangs away on timpani. On his right side a smaller angel musician plays straight trumpet (right); on his left one holds a flared-bell recorder, which seems to be in two parts. The cathedral stands on the island of Ostrów Tumski north-east of the city centre.


  • Theatre of Human Life, baroque tiles of the period of D. João V (1744–1749), Portuguese. Évora: Universidade de Évora: Humanities Classroom (Room 107). Possibly from Bartolomeu Antunes’ atelier in Lisbon, based on the Moral Theatre of Human Life and all the Philosophy of Ancient and Modern Sages. Allegorical scenes in proto-Classical surroundings, in which Oratory, Description, Rhetoric, History, Poetry and Chronology are figured. At each side of the central stage are musicians. Those on the left play viol and an ambiguous pipe; those on the right sing and play lute and an identical pipe.
  • Stucco decoration (18th century), Portuguese. Queluz (between Sintra and Lisbon): Palácio de Queluz, Coach Room. Ref. Charles Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). One of the decorative ridges includes a pipe of some sort.
  • Gilded panels (18th century), Portuguese. Porto: Sé Catedral, panels above choir stalls at join with the choir wall. Ref. Charles Rowland-Jones (pers. comm. 2000). Depicts groups of musical instruments in decorative form, possibly including recorders.


  • The Birth of Christ (1730), wall painting, Romanian. Saraca-Timis: Church. Ref. RIdIM/RCMI Newsletter 22 (1): 25, fig. 3, detail, b&w (1997). A shepherd seated with his crook under his right arm plays a long slender duct flute (caval). Another below him holds what looks like a vase. The locality unclear; it may refer to the monastery (Mănăstirea Săraca) at Semlaco Mic, near Săraca Mare which is south-east of Timioara.


  • Mercury and Argus (late 18 – early 19th-century), oil on canvas, Russian. Sibirskaya: Chelyabinsk Region Picture Gallery. Ref. Website: Shining Russia: The Golden age of the Russian Classical Culture (2016). Mercury, standing, holds a conical pipe with which he has just lulled Argus to sleep. The latter slumps on a bank, watched by Io (as a heifer).


  • Musical Putto, fresco, Slovenia (early 18th century). Ljubljana: Stolnica svetega Nikolaja [Cathedral of St Nicholas], St George Side Chapel. The frescoes in this chapel which include putti playing are probably by a student of North-Italian artist Giulio Quaglio (1668–1751), a native from Laino near Como who was engaged to paint the cathedral’s vault and walls between 1703–1706 and 1721–1723. A putto seated on a cloud plays a small cylindrical pipe with a markedly flared foot, his hands, fingers and thumb disposed suitably for recorder-playing. In other side chapels putti play clearly depicted violins, cornetto, cellos and harp, as well as an ambiguous pipe (see below).
  • Musical Putto, fresco, Slovenia (early 18th century). Ljubljana: Stolnica svetega Nikolaja [Cathedral of St Nicholas], St Trinity Side Chapel. The frescoes in this chapel depict scenes from the Old Testament, including Aaron and King David) and are probably by a student of North-Italian artist Giulio Quaglio (1668–1751), a native from Laino near Como who was engaged to paint the cathedral’s vault and walls between 1703–1706 and 1721–1723. A putto seated on a cloud plays a small cylindrical pipe with a markedly flared foot, his hands and fingers disposed suitably for recorder-playing, but his thumb not visible. Since the piper blows the instrument from the corner of his mouth this may well have been intended to represent a mute cornet, but a recorder remains a possibility. In other side chapels putti play clearly depicted violins, cornetto, cellos, harp, and recorder (see above).


  • From Trujillo del Perú (1780–1790), by Baltasar Jaime Martínez Compañon y Bujanda, Danza de Carnestolendas, pen & ink and watercolour, Spanish/Peru (18th-century). Madrid: Palacio Real, Biblioteca. Ref. Martínez Compañón y Bujanda (1978: fig. 146); Jordan in Davidson & Tippet (2007: 48–49, fig. 2, b&w); Website: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel De Cervantes (2008, col.) One of 1,411 coloured drawings, part of a nine-volume study made by Comañon (?1735–1790), a Spanish prelate, during the pastoral visit he undertook from 1780–1785, on his appointment as Bishop of Trjillo, Peru. The report (not published in his lifetime) covers flora, fauna, history geography, architecture, administration, education, agriculture, crafts, the arts, costume, and leisure. The second volume even has a substantial linguistic component, providing a glossary in eight indigenous languages. A number of illustrations deal with music and dance. In these, quite distinct cultures are evident – native, negro, European. In this example, six young men in courtly costumes, execute a formal dance in a court-yard. Strangely, these characters are barefoot. One plays a mandolin, two play what appear to be what appear to be slide whistles, the plungers clearly depicted, while the sixth has his back turned. Other illustrations include vihuela, guitar, harp, lute, viol, violin, pipe and tabor, marimba, cymbal, shakers, gourd scraper, pan-pipes, cornetto. Of these the most frequently depicted is the pipe and tabor. The drawings were probably not by Compañon himself but by an anonymous artist or artists.
  • Untitled (? early 18th century), vaulted ceiling fresco, Spanish. Granada: Monasterio de San Jéronimo (now a convent), nave, western bay. Ref. Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). An angel with two angel instrumentalists one of whom plays lute, the other a beaked recorder. The mouthpiece of the latter is rather slender and the whole instrument very slightly outwardly conic to a non-flared bell. A mark near the top could, with imagination, represent a window/labium, and two marks between the hands could be finger holes, though they are not quite in line. Notes by Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Untitled (? early 18th century), vaulted ceiling fresco, Spanish. Granada: Monasterio de  San Jéronimo (now a convent), cloister, south-western door. Ref. Anthony & Charles Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2002). An angel plays a large, thick pipe with a bocal entering the side near the top of the instrument which may represent a basset recorder. There is a double ring near the top suggesting a joint for a removable cap, though no window-labium is visible, nor any finger holes. A bulging area near the foot could represent a fontanelle, but no key is visible. There is a decorative incised ring at the bell end. On a nearby spandrel another angel plays a baroque violin.
  • Stucco decoration, Spanish. Aranjuez: Palacio Real, Ball Room. Two baroque three-piece turned alto recorders and a violin lie on top of pages of music manuscript.
  • Still-life (18th century), Spanish. Location unknown: sold by Vente Galleria, Paris, 30 March 1965. Ref. Paris RIdIM (1999). A jumble of flowers and fruit , a violin, a lute and a tiny monkey holding in one hand a slender flared-bell recorder almost as large as himself.
  • [Pastorale] (? 18th century), painting, Spanish. Location unknown. Ref. Warburg Institute, London. On the edge of a clearing in a leafy forest, two peasants rest. One, seated, plays a flared-bell recorder with decorative rings on the foot. His companion, leans against his staff.
  • Trophies with musical instruments (18th century), Spanish. Murcia: Catedral de Santa Maria, pilasters on either side of the West Front facade. Ref.Centre for Music Documentation (CMD), Madrid (2001); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2001 & 2002). The pilasters include several trophies with musical instrument, some of them rather imaginative. One shows the underneath of the upper part of a duct flute (flageolet or recorder) up to the thumb hole, the rest of the instrument is hidden behind a scroll; another shows a clear duct flute (probably a recorder) with details of the beak, window/labium, several finger holes and a turned foot clearly depicted; a third shows the underneath of the upper part of a flageolet with two thumb holes, the rest of the instrument is hidden behind a scroll.


  • Musical Trophy (1753), painting, Swedish. Ängsö: Engsö Slott: clavichord lid. Ref. RIdIM Stockholm (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). A trophy made up of many crudely painted musical instruments: drum, triangle (with 3 jingle rings), hurdy-gurdy, lyre, 2 folded trumpets, bassoon or curtal, and 2 recorders. Only the recorders’ heads are shown, in side profile so the characteristic beak can be seen. I have been unable to locate a photograph of the lid. Coincidentally, around the time this instrument was made, the castle was occupied by the Swedish count and civil servant Carl Fredrik Piper (c.1700–1770). 
  • A Man Making Music (18th century), painted wall paper, Swedish. Borås: Borås Museum. Ref. RIdIM Stockholm (2000); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). This picture is very damaged so details are unclear. A man plays a long wind instrument, thin and slightly outwardly concical with a gently turned-up bell end. But the figure of the man himself is elongated. The head of the recorder is just away from the man’s lips, the beak is curved, a window/labium is possibly visible beneath the damage. There are three (possibly four) upper finger holes. The left hand seems to be clutching the instrument. No holes are visible in the elongated bell. The artist may have had a tenor recorder in mind. Notes by Rowland-Jones (loc. cit.)
  • Musical Company (1736), painting on inside of a rectangular clavichord lid, Swedish. Stockholm: Scenkonstmuseet, Inv. M2215 (1942). Ref. Oja (1978: 39, item 208); RIdIM Stockholm (2000); Helenius-Öberg (1986: 121); Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 2000). In a park, musicians play harpsichord, harp, cello and two clearly depicted alto recorders (Rowland-Jones, loc. cit.) This painting is based loosely on Bernard Picart’s Concert Champêtre. It is possible that it obscures the original paintwork (Helenius-Öberg, loc. cit.)
  • Recorder Player, painted wooden panel, Sweden (18th century). Habo (15 km NW of Jönköping): Kyrka. Habo Church is a large red-painted wooden building, rebuilt in 1716 and enlarged 1721–1723, decorated with vividly colored ceiling and wall paintings on biblical themes in rustic baroque style. Two Jönköping painters, Johan Kinnerius and Johan Christian Peterson painted panels illustrating Luther’s catechism. A series of panels depict women playing or holding musical instruments, amongst them violin, harp, straight trumpet, ?flute, lyre and recorder. The later is a clearly depicted baroque-style instrument. The ‘?flute has a flared bell and may represent a side-blown basset recorder.


  • Tambourin Player (early 18th century), oil and/or gouache on glass, 31.5 × 23.7 cm, Swiss (Lucerne). Paris: Musée National des Arts et Traditions Populaires, 61.10.89. Ref. Website: Joconde Database (1999). A copy of a tableau in the ? Museum, Basle. Depicts a soldier playing a duct flute (?three-holed pipe) and drum, Not seen.
  • Guitar, Recorder, and oblong Book of Music, cup and saucer, porcelain 4.4 × 9.8 × 7.9 cm (cup), 2.2 × 14.2 cm (saucer), Swiss (Noyon). Chicago: Art Institute, 1964.1155a & b. Ref. Ford (1987: #227). Not seen

Provenance unknown

  • Recorder Player, (ca 1705), painting, artist & provenance unknown. Haslemere: Dolmetsch Musical Instruments. Ref. Recorder & Music Magazine 2 (2): front cover, b&w (1966); Bergmann & Oler (1966: 85); Tibia (1994: front cover, col.); Lasocki (1977); Recorder Magazine 21 (3): front cover – col. (2001); Postcard: Dolmetsch Musical Instruments. Shows an alto baroque recorder with ivory mounts held by a wigged male musician, once thought to have been the German composer Johann Christian Schickhardt (ca 1682–1762). The red book is titled Corelli’s Solos for the Flute (at that time meaning the recorder).
  • [Title unknown], (?1730), artist & provenance unknown. Ref. Landon & Norwich (1991: title page). A man on a balcony seen in side profile next to a lutenist plays a flared recorder with an elongated beak. Possibly by Pellegrini (Rowland-Jones, pers com.)
  • Porcelain figure, artist & provenance unknown. Ref. Advertisement for Fehr Recorders Early Music 15 (4): 567 (1987). A girl plays a baroque-style recorder with one hand holding an apron full of apples with the other, a lamb at her feet.
  • [Concert], engraving, artist & provenance unknown. Ref. Hunt (1968: 255). Depicts a chamber ensemble comprising a singer accompanied by recorder, flute, bassoon and harpsichord players.
  • Itinerant Musician, ? pen & ink, artist & provenance unknown. Ref. Weir (1981: 5, b&w). An old man sitting on a wall leans on his stick and plays a small flared pipe (possibly a recorder, since all the fingers of the lower hand are covering holes).
  • Untitled, ivory carving, (? 18th century), artist unknown. Brunswick: Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum. Ref. Brunswick Museum Ivory Collection Catalogue (1931); Munich RIdIM (1999). Two children with pipes, possibly recorders. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • Polyphemus (? 18th century), print, artist unknown. Brunswick: Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum. Ref. Munich RIdIM (1999, BSm – 427). A rather roughly drawn print showing Ulysses’ men blinding Polyphemus with his sheep around him. On the ground under his left hand is a duct flute (possibly a recorder) with a sharply flared bell end. The window/labium is clear and five finger holes show. Notes by Anthony Rowland-Jones (pers. comm., 1999).
  • [Portrait of a Musician] (? 18th century), painting, artist and provenance unknown. Ref. Walter Bergmann, Slide Collection WB50 (ex Anthony Rowland-Jones, pers. comm. 2003, b&w). A young musician poses with his right hand in his jacket; his left, leaning against a small table, holds a furled music manuscript. Further along the table, an alto baroque recorder (the head hidden) lies on top of a legible sheet of music.
  • Concert, painting, artist and provenance unknown. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Musique, VM PHOT MIRI-12 (416). Ref. Website: gallica (2012, b&w). A most unusual composition. In a room which appears to be designed to give a false sense of perspective a man plays a violin, a woman plays a lute, and another man plays a perfectly depicted baroque alto recorder, right hand uppermost.

Cite this article as: Nicholas S. Lander. 1996–2024. Recorder Home Page: Anonymous: 18th century. Last accessed 13 July 2024.